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The third decade (2020-2030)
Separation of new sciences and trends from genetics. Growth of private investments in genetics and medicine. Functions renewal of human senescent organism. Renewal of endocrine glands functioning. Application of monitoring and control sensors in human organism. The universal vaccinations. Increase of average human lifetime for twenty years. Understanding in general of morphogenesis mechanisms for human organism. Decoding of numerous flowcharts "gene - protein - biochemical reaction". Creation of database for structure and functions of human organism proteins. Work on creation of computer model for human organism metabolism. Creation of computer model for sample human genome. Computer model of human neuron with interactivity elements. Genie designing. The achievements in agriculture. Genetic engineering successes in pharmaceutics. Mass application of genetic engineering technologies in world economy. Genetic texts study for rare, exotic, extinct species of microorganisms, animals and plants. Research works on human organism improving. Application of micromachines for operative and preventive effect for human organism. Means of supply for genes normalizers to wide cell units. Means of unnecessary substances extraction out of cell. The cancer liquidation as disease. Preparations which regulate temperature of human organism and metabolic rate. Decoding of flowcharts of "gene - protein - biochemical reaction" view for some marine animals and fish. Protein natural molecule improving by computer simulation. The commencement of works on creation of human with sample genes. Secret attempts on creation of improved human for military purposes. The difficulties of artificial genes creation. The genomes renewal of extinct animals and plants. Controlling over processes of plant transgenic organisms growth. Design of new foodstuffs. Common database for computer models of chemical compounds. High level of nanotechnology development. Receiving of extra-clean chemical substances and compounds. Large-scale production of inorganic materials by molecular assembling methods. The evolving catalysts. Serial catalysts as a base for non-waste technologies. Development of self-destroyed after functions performing materials. Chemical technologies work-out in "common space of virtual modelling". The artificial photocatalysts for different frequency of electromagnetic radiation. Creation of new chemical compounds classes. Technologies of overpressure and hyperdense materials. Constructional materials, received under high pressure. Hydrogen application in industry and in private life. Biological extraction of chemical compounds. Application of computer visualization systems in private life. Study of brain activity by means of molecular robots. Medicine preparations which prove the memorization. Experiments on input of simple programs for conduct, thinking and feeling in human brain. Understanding of mechanisms for psychological states origin of human being. Operating supervision over human brain parameters. The first experiments on correction of human being psychological states. The present and future of CSVM. Application of robots-educators for upbringing of the younger generation.
The leading science of the present was as before the genetics. During recent years more then dozens of self-independent sciences and numerous of new trends separated from this most important for human being science. The range, covered by new sciences and trends, was extremely wide and included study of all living nowadays representatives of earth biosphere, and also possibly its extinct representatives. Often the very insignificant information, worked out by natural sciences, was in vast value for further genetics progress. Equally important was information both about the human genome arrangement and about metabolism of the very useless microorganisms species, both about causes of influenza viruses mutations and genome arrangement of extinct animals and plants. The interest to genetic and biological researches on the part of community was high never more yet. The reason for this was that world public opinion accepted the genetics as all-powerful science, which was able to ensure for each human being the real longevity, active life in old age, the possibility of renewal and improving for own organism.
All that there was traditionally formed in our life that overwhelming majority of people received the considerable financial possibilities in middle and old age. By the other words the considerable part of global capital is in ownership or under management of people, passed long ago the maturity time. The choice of capital investment variant for this part of population is mostly defined by care about future of their children and folks. Per se the capital investment by elderly people has necessary nature, inasmuch as they know for a long time that none monetary inflow in prolongation of their own life, but this is the first-order priority for them, are available to give no cardinal results in principle. By these conditions the human being orients for the second-order priorities which are the prosperity and help to relatives. However the rapid development of genetics and concomitant sciences breached the fully formed behavioral and thinking stereotype as for possibility of own life prolongation. Recently more and more rich people invested actively the resources to their own longevity and health, placed money to scientific technologies development. The attractive possibility of personal immortality loomed already up in the near prospect. And this wasn't self-deception and illusion. Each new day brought real achievements and discoveries, which couldn't be noted by anyone.
The cash resources of private persons, which were invested in development of genetic sciences, were colossal. There were no yet in human history the precedents of so mass and vivid interest for any science on the part of people, owning practically the illimitable capital. The best scientists, the best equipment, the best and the best... The sufficient financing availability predetermined the revolutionary hitch in genetics. The finances flow to allied with genetics sciences stimulated there the numerous discoveries too. Even many academic minor researches, the financing of which got off the ground only thank to unprecedented interest splash of world public to natural sciences, received the impulse for development. Undoubtedly the aspects of genetics practical application for medicine purposes were the main tendency of monetary investment in genetic development.
The medicine, echoed to the mood and needs of the society, set itself , besides other important tasks, as a priority task to support and renew the functions of senescent human organism. The private investments were maximal just for this tendency. The aging and aged yet moneyed people communion of the world was interested in just this tendency of medicine most of all. To satisfy the investors wishes there were actively developed the following tendencies of medicine researches.
One of the anility's feature is the blood glands malfunction of human being, and also their unbalanced work. These malfunctions are reflection of complex processes, occurring in senescent human organism, and are defined by low quality of metabolic reactions and also by fully formed interrelations distortion of organism parts. If to get to the root, the simultaneous mass distortions of intracellular activity functions are the prime cause of this. In view of naked theory the optimal variant for senescent human organism renewal was the simultaneous renewal of all blood glands, inasmuch as functions of any of them were disturbed in a varying degree by this age. And the variant of partial replacement for the most defective blood glands was only the half measure. Complete replacement operation for organs was preferential as pursuing the maximal purposes, but its practical realization required hard surgical operation on blood glands implantation, that was hard trial for senescent human organism and bore inter se the vital elements of risk. The process in itself for new human organs growth, including the blood glands, was sufficiently studied and reasonably good worked through by this time. The growth of new organ occurred at most close to the stages and terms of natural growth program, realizing in human organism. The genes and groups of genes, determined the growth processes and terms for differentiation of different specialization cells, realized their programs in strict sequence such as in growing organism. The control of these process was joint. The part of control functions was realized forcibly, from outside, by means of single effect for all quantity of growing cells, which carried out through the mechanisms of activation and inhibition for separate genes or group of genes. The other part of control functions, based on usage of regulatory mechanisms, to be exact on activation and inhibition processes of genes and genes groups, realized by the same natural way as by the organs growth inside the developing organism.
The growing of new organs was difficult and complex work. As a rule, several research institutes and numerous of laboratories worked on execution of growing process for only one organ. Theoretically clear process under practical realization was with getting over the numerous difficulties, when besides the basis functional tissue growing for the certain organ, it was required to accompany this growth with proportional growth of neural, muscular, conjunctive tissue, blood vessels and capillaries and etc. So the growing of new blood glands was a real cause, but long-term and expensive. Nevertheless firm demand stimulated the proposal. The technologies of organs growing outside human organism were improving, the value of blood glands growing constantly decreased, and because of all that the humanity only won.
Another approach was realized by technology of blood glands renascence. The understanding of functioning mechanisms for blood glands cells, and also decoding of flowcharts "gene (group of genes) - biochemical reaction - hormone", laid the foundation of purposeful effect for certain genes. Also the injection of additional chemical substances directly into the cells cytoplasm promoted the renewal of blood glands for some time. The period of such renascence could be long enough for one organism and short for another - too many individual factors affected for outcome of intracellular intervention. The age of human, tissue status, immunity strength, the presence of individual chemical compounds in a cell - all this affected for the functioning period of renewal glands.
By that time there were thoroughly studied the hormonal and enzyme systems of human organism, there were understood the processes of these systems interaction among themselves and their effect for organism in the whole. The decoding of molecular and space structure of all human hormones and enzymes allowed to set their mass producing largo manum. Means of purposeful supply for medicine preparations were successfully applied for address supply of necessary hormones and enzymes directly to needy organ or tissue.
In practice the blood glands functioning renewal realized in such a way. The monitoring sensors, implanted into organism of patient, realized the operative supervision over the hormones concentration in key places of human organism and handed over the current information to medical computer. By distortion of hormone balance in human being organism computer gave out in real mode time the current recommendations for supply of hormone preparations to one or another organism sectors. The constant medicine control over hormone level and balance in human being organism worked wonders, the hormones system of elderly people was constantly corrected and supported at level corresponding to youthful and young age. Such effect for human being organism could realize during long period without any damage to health. Positive additional effect was the renewal of blood glands functioning after receiving of corrective action series by them. Fine mechanisms of automatic regulation, worked out by human being organism during evolutionary process, played their role here.
In medicine there was activated the work on developing of technologies for improving, renewal and optimization of all organs and tissues functions of aging human. The universal approach was implantation of monitoring sensors into human being organism, which were twenty-four-hour connected with medical computer and controlled one or another parameters of internal environment of human being. Medical computer gave out the recommendations for patient or commands directly for executive mechanisms to normalize the organism's parameters by means of necessary preparations injection. As a rule there were created the numerous depot - places of warehousing and storage (and in some cases even production) of hormones, proteins, enzymes necessary chemical compounds and medicine preparations. These were as implanted artificial devices so the tissues of human being organism, performing the functions of long-term storage of their contents.
The combined application of developed technologies greatly reduced the possibility of lethal outcome for patient, depending on failure of organs and blood glands, metabolic disease, the typical reasons of destruction for senescent organism. The implantation of monitoring, control systems and some executive devices into organism of patient in practice bore extremely sparing nature. The usage of microsurgery methods and current achievements in field of nanotechnologies allowed to carry out the operative measures without notable discomfort for the patient. The human didn't feel the presence of foreign objects in his organism after implantation, both their small dimensions and owing to biological inactivity of applied materials.
One more point for application of research groups efforts became the works on human immune system improving. By this time there were wholly explored and understood the mechanisms of human immune system functioning, of immune organs interaction on one another, and also their effect to other organs and tissues in process of immune response working out. Besides this there were explored and understood the molecular mechanisms of biological active substances effect to immune system in the whole. All this made possible to begin practical improving of human immune system by means of biological active preparations application taking into account the organism peculiarities. For these purposes scientists developed and synthesized the series of universal biologically active and also a great number of individual action type preparations, oriented to activation and strengthening of human immune system. The individual approach promoted the supporting of human immune system during long time at maximal, determined by nature level, without any harmful effect for organism, such as exhaustion and overwork.
Computer technologies development and software improving didn't avoid the immunology. Collected information, characterized the molecular structure of the more known and dangerous antigens, was constantly in process by means of specialized programs, so that ultimately allowed to draw the generalized inferences and conclusions which were in a great importance for human health. It was proved the possibility of creation for artificial proteins, which simultaneously concluded the surface indications of dozens dangerous antigens, but were deprived of pathogenic effect. Such synthetic combinations were like dangerous nature antigens by their membrane specific proteins. They were typical foreign proteins (antigens) for human organism immune system, the invasion of which required the formation of immune response independently their degree of danger and pathogenicity. Such artificial proteins were the universal vaccinations. After such vaccination the human organism worked out the life-long immunity to lot of pathogenic microbes and viruses, consisting of proteins and protein fragments similar to those which were in universal protein vaccination. The universal vaccinations application allowed to shorten for the next order the bacterial and viral infection morbidity. Also considerably decreased the number of food and industrial toxins poisoning.
Parallel there were developed active synthetic absorbents of new generation, which successfully realized some functions of human immune system. The active synthetic absorbents by injection to human blood-vascular system combined selectively with foreign chemical compounds, gotten to human organism from environment. Besides this they neutralized and fixed metabolism products of human organism, first of all the toxins, free radicals, some other undesirable chemical compounds.
Steady progression of natural sciences, main of which were genetics and medicine, led to increase of average lifetime for twenty years in developed countries. At general average background there were marked out the individual impressive cases of term prolongation for replete, active life. The existing condition of science and engineering allowed with confidence to predict for the well-off the term of their active life within one hundred years, sure enough under condition of the whole medical measures complex realization, oriented to rejuvenation and recovery of senescent organism. Considering the rate of progress for key, for human, tendencies of genetics and medicine, it was possible to suppose the increasing of active life term for all population of planet, and not just a bit of the rich people, in the near future. Speak in simple phrase, all people, born in sixth decade of the twenties century, had chances for longevity, active healthy life. So far as it was real for everybody to use these chances, it depended on will of human being, its significance in society, financial performance and many others.
Systematic study of human genome continued in all countries of the world. This process passed to organize well-ordered stage. There were no more revolutionary hitches at that tendency, just hundred thousands and millions scientists scrupulously, step by step, assembled more new pieces of genetic mosaic, over which the harmonious picture of human genome functioning was really looked through. In the past there was euphoria of the first discovery successes, now the research process was non-stop in the silence of laboratories and institutes, hourly reflecting new achievements and results by improving for computer models of cells, organs, integral organisms, replenishing in such a way public database. The human genome was province off all mankind and long since the information about arrangement and mechanisms of its functioning had become public and available to all scientists and lovers of the whole world, with not great exception because of safety. It was compiled and systematized extremely much of experimental information.
The analysis of compiled information allowed to understand completely the mechanisms of morphogenesis for human organism, realized through series activation of the so-called "architecture genes". There were become clear the processes of growth and development for human organism from the moment of the first fertilized ovum fission up to sexual maturity stage, including space arrangement mechanisms of cells, tissues, organs, mechanisms of cell differentiation, and also mechanisms of series insertion for one or another genes or genes groups. There were compiled the complete flowcharts of general view "gene - protein - feature", which included information with different degree of complexity about subordination and interrelations of genes, proteins and features among themselves.
The titanic work on compiling of full list for flowcharts of "gene - protein - biochemical reaction" type approached the end. The creation of the united chart for all metabolic reactions of human organism was seen as total of this work. The sequences "protein - biochemical reaction" were jointed and formed up into long branched chains after decoding. At the same time there were demonstrably reflected the mechanisms of complex processes and functions peculiar to living cells and tissues of human being. Such complex chains, intertwining among themselves, reflected in tabular or virtual 3-D form the united not yet completed chart for all metabolic reactions of human organism.
Every day the united chart of metabolic reactions became more and more complete, exact and comprehensive. By the end of the decade about two hundreds fifty thousands biochemical reactions were reflected in it, which were peculiar to the human organism, both for the whole survival and in definite periods of its development. In this comprehensive scientific research there was made allowance for half a million of different proteins type, produced in human organism, the functions and arrangement of which were determined by this time. Study of hundred thousands proteins, which were unexplored yet, successfully went on by scientists of many world countries under program "The human protein". Difficulties under proteins study, connected with their little quantity, existence fugacity within the cell, with necessity to study the protein molecular behavior directly in living cell and also ambiguous interaction with other substances, were successfully gotten over. Step by step the scientists disclosed secrets of protein molecules arrangement, their behavior nuances by biochemical reactions.
The systematization of the received by science knowledge allowed to start the creation of computer model for human organism metabolism, which reflected the complete list of life-supporting reactions peculiar to human organism. Despite lack of knowledge about half million different proteins of human organism arrangement and functions, it was quite really and alluring to state their functions and arrangement in approximate form, in order to get finished instrument for further researches. However the scientists took another tack of computer model creation, solely constructed on reliable, well-tried and confirmed facts. Such facts formed the foundation where new theories and hypotheses were constructed, checked and polished, and also there were defined more exactly the knowledge and concepts received earlier.
Being created model of human organism metabolism became most full and was minutely renewing database which was replenished in real time mode by information received under realization of programs "The human protein" and "The human genome". This model although wasn't full enough inasmuch as didn't consider all proteins and biochemical reaction peculiar to human organism, nevertheless it gave enough detailed conception about fine points for main metabolic processes in cells, tissues and organs of human being. The important feature of the computer model was its ability to represent the metabolic processes in human organism and protein molecules arrangement by way of 3D graphic virtual presentation. If speak simply, a great deal of human organism arrangement and functioning was explored and understood yet. The information about functions and structure of unstudied proteins, about unexplored metabolic reactions predestination had the marginal significance for scientists, inasmuch as touched upon the processes, features and reactions which didn't threaten to destruction of human being organism. Certainly the existing blind-spots required the most careful examination, but even by lack of these knowledge it was possible already today to use successfully the possibilities of computer model for human organism metabolism to advance in medicine, pharmaceutics, gerontology and other scientists.
To coordinate the efforts of world scientific community and to improve and replenish the base computer model there was established the scientific center in the territory of the united Europe, wherein hundreds experts of various profiles from many countries worked. Unfortunately, the created computer model couldn't work for a while yet under interactive mode, that made difficulties for scientists on finishing of hypotheses and estimates under real time mode. Input of new knowledge in database was carried out as automatically in accordance with software algorithms, so directly by specialists under cases, unforeseen by computer programs. More and more new knowledge was close analyzed with a view to correspondence with already available data. The process of analysis was carried out by special working group which concluded the representatives of different sciences. This group also made the necessary corrections for computer model under data occurrence with regularity once per week and more often in case of some grave hitch at one of scientific sectors.
All scientific establishments of the world had equal rights for usage of base computer model for human organism metabolism to solve their own tasks. The supercomputers and high-speed information highways allowed to do this quickly and from any part of the world. Special security service affected control over experiments purity by usage of base computer model. Any attempts to develop the genetic, cytological, biochemical arms on it were nipped in the bud, both by security service and by embedded protective programs.
By the end of the decade there was finished the toilsome work on comparison of human genes and genes groups with coded by them features, proteins and biochemical reactions. During researches under decoding and comparison of genes with coded by them features, proteins and biochemical reactions there was used the extensive material, numbered more then fifty thousands of individual genomes. The genetic material for researches was selected by criterions of maximal genomes dissimilarity among themselves, therefore the research finished by getting the certainties. Under selection of genomes which must represent authentically the whole mankind gene pool there were considered the genealogical nuances, place of residence, professional activity, race, age of persons who provided the genetic material. The results of computer analysis for hereditary information allowed to separate the group of genes which were responsible for the most successful display of human organism features, which were underlain the computer model of sample human genome. This model embodied all "the best" genes, determined during the years of individual genomes researches, and had a great importance for the future of all mankind. For example, the child, who came into the world with such sample genome, will have the advantages over the other children by birth and never will be sick and will have the "energy" reserves of all organism systems several times more than average human. The real birth of human who has sample gene pattern would be the important step on the path of human evolution, the new stage of human progress, defined not by Nature itself, but elaborated by power of the human mind.
However the theoretical possibility of absolute human creation (on base of sample genome) in the near future didn't especially worry and inspire anybody in the world. This topic was interesting and actual today. The morrow made many advantages of absolute, sample human inessential. For all his remarkable physical and morphological features the human with sample gene pattern wasn't the factor which cardinally affected human society evolution. Genetically programmed duration of human life up to 110-120 years could become the reality already today, and it was possible to attain this by relatively simple medical means and technologies. The prospect to have healthy organs for their own children in elderly age didn't seriously worried today's parents, who lived in the world, where the replacement of worn organs and tissues was daily reality. The understanding of mechanisms for genetic programs realization, that forever removed the veil of mystery over the magic change of two fused together cells into intellectual individual, made the contemporary human more self-confident.
Potential of the best evolution results, realizing in genome of absolute human, as it was considerable nevertheless had its limit, not too much superior to the limit of average human resources. Many scientists, philosophers and just intellectuals considere that usage of natural sample genes for growth of rising generation in the near future is not justified, that problems, which civilization itself poses and solves, must be more scale and complex. Not the increasing of life duration up to 120-150 years, but the increasing of active longevity duration up to 500-1000 years - such a problem must be solved already today. Not the increasing of organism reserves and organs resources up to thirty-fifty percents, but creation of new organs and systems which provide the life activity under wide-ranging ambient conditions. Not increasing of the digestive system efficiency coefficient by food processing, but the usage of another kinds of energy, besides the chemical bonds energy.
In short it was a question about the human improving as a species not by the way of gradual evolutionary transformation, but by the way of active usage of knowledge and high technologies. Such case scenario possibility itself met both adherents and the opponents all over the world. Discussions at that topic became the inherent attribute of public and scientific forums, and also the subject to open-ended discussions in political and state institutes. World religious organizations also attached to discussion about human evolution ways, and their opinions in this connection also were divided.
The emergence of computer model for sample human genome didn't make the appreciable agiotage against the existent in the world discussions. The new model found its level as an element of base computer model for human organism metabolism, the most complete and extensive among the existing models. Other existing computer models of specialized human cells, some animals cells and computer models of human functional tissues, organs, systems and subsystems also took the appropriate place in the base model.
By this time the whole world turned to the unitary software standards for computer modeling. This allowed to mate together without problems the odd models with various degree of detailed elaboration, which were developed in different countries and oriented to usage by experts of different trends. Family of computer models of animal and plant cells was presented by several complete enough models, developed by scientists of USA, Japan, Europe, China and Russia.
The most complete and accomplished model was computer model for nerve cell of human brain, worked out in USA. Detailed elaboration level of components and structural elements of nerve cell in this computer model was extremely high. All cellular structures and processes of this model were developed with detailed elaboration at molecular level, and the main and most important of them at level of separate atoms. High knowledge level of nerve cell components and good detailed elaboration allowed to realize the interactive and self-adjusting options in computer model. It passed on to a new, adequate to the interference, status after effect of perturbing factor to the model, as may be the new data input or abstract concepts check. For example, after virtual chemical compound injection into computer model of human brain nerve cell it was possible to receive visually the answer to the question: "Is this chemical compound neutral? Does it improve or worsen the occurring processes during the signal transmission between the neurons?".
After data input the supercomputer began calculation of variants for virtual chemical compound interaction with all chemical compounds responsive to reaction which participated in simulated process. At that interaction of chemical compounds molecules and atoms considered as interaction of potential energy surfaces. New integral surface, which formed under interaction of two potential energy surfaces, preset the structure for all possible chemical compounds, whose structure fell into such surface. The impossibility of receiving the integral potential energy surface pointed out impossibility of chemical reaction realization between these chemical compounds. Search procedure for the answer was continuing after determining of in posse chemical reactions products, automatically displaying right now in form of distributed in space structures, which could arise by interaction of explored chemical compound with all cellular components responsive to reaction. It was usual to call such list of possible chemical reactions products the first genus list.
The newly formed chemical compounds were checked for chemical interaction with all chemical compounds available in operational space and cellular components responsive to reaction and among themselves. The new list for in posse chemical compounds arose from the second stage of computer analysis and that was the second genus list. Later on, depending on accepted depth of explorations for assigned task, the additional analysis stages could be carried out to find the answer of necessary accuracy degree.
All occasions of receiving new integral potential energy surfaces (chemical reacting products of explored compounds) were studied for their further participation in the whole chain of metabolic reactions for simulated process. In our example the answer for the raised question was the virtual image of possible reactions for active chemical compounds and membrane proteins, supervising the nerve cell excitability and providing the generation and transfer of nerve impulses among the neurons. Analyzing the sequences of such images it is easy to draw the conclusions about nature of influence for the explored chemical compound to the processes, arising among neurons at the moment of signals transfer.
Based on the quantum theory, the chemical reactions simulation method, wherein the interrelations between nucleuses and electrons were analyzed, was the most accurate among applied simulation methods. However this method required the usage of high power computers and was applied in particularly important cases. For these purposes, as a rule, there were involved the computer resources with total power not less than ten millions Teraflop. For all complexity the simulation tasks for two and more complex chemical compounds were successfully practically solved. Therein it wasn't the merit only of supercomputers creators and producers. The operations quantity per second, which was required to calculate the interaction of two relatively simple protein molecules was astronomical and couldn't be attained in the near future by the extensive way of supercomputer capacity expanding.
The main merit in increasing of supercomputers effectiveness under solving the high complexity tasks belonged to the software creators. Just perfect software cut off those hundreds and thousands billions of dead-end variants and useless operations, which only took the computing time, and allowed to separate the wheat from the chaff in real time mode. At that experience of previous computer models creation played the tremendous role in computer simulation technologies. Nothing essential wasn't lost in the software engineering world without leaving a trace, but was used for the further science progress. Besides this under computer simulation of different chemical compounds interactions the quantity of combinations for reacting substances was although large, but final yet. The quantity of potentially useful variants came to highly small part of all theoretically possible. By this the database creation was of particular importance, as it contained information about the most significant for mankind chemical and biochemical compounds qualities, which were displayed in universal form suitable for usage in computer simulation technologies. Practically this implied that planned transformation of chemical compounds qualities into electronic form became one of the main application point for the efforts of various scientists specialties, as it would considerably speed up and make easy different processes of computer simulating.
Hundreds scientific establishments of chemical and physical profiles in the whole world began systematically to carry on the calculation of potential energy surfaces for chemical and biological compounds and also the interaction of already calculated potential energy surfaces among themselves. Step by step the ancient sciences such as chemistry and biology together with the newest science such as genetics more and more displaced their field observations and experiments to the sphere of computer simulation and constructing. It was expected that just universal computer simulation methods for substance features and structure would be combined today's chemistry, genetics and biology in one integral science in the near future.
By the middle of the third decade gene engineering reached the impressive developmental level, especially in the field of new genes constructing, nonexistent in the earth biosphere. The genie engineers followed in their work the traditional approach on usage of genes and integral genie structures of plant and animal organisms for genetic modification of other organism. If explain these theories maximally simplistically, it's possible to say that the human tried to shuffle the genes, taken out of the earth biosphere gene pool, in his own way to receive the intended effect. Practically this process wasn't occurred in a random way, to the contrary it was realized under very strict control, with meaningful constraints which were imposed on purposes and ways of their execution. Branches of industry, based on gene engineering achievements, steadily took the fourth place in the world by volume of make products. Only power engineering, extractive industry and computer and software production were in advance of them.
During uncompleted fifty years, passed from the moment of gene engineering formation as applied science, its results considerable influenced to the evolution of agriculture, medicine, chemical industry, power engineering, ecology and other spheres of human activity. For example, the optimized agricultural plants, that were spread all over the world during the recent years, had the average crop capacity three times as much as the best traditional sorts. Such plants had heritage stable features and were not undergone the spontaneous mutations. Per se practically there were realized the advantages of sample plant organisms, of the most important for the human species. Further improving of useful sample plants features was also carried out by gene engineering methods by means of gene transfer into the sample hereditary material, taken out of the other plants. Such improved sorts obtained new useful features, keeping high capacity yield. The most important of them were the resistance to drought and frost, the ability to deal with different pests all alone, not great need in chemical fertilizers, the possibility of growing several useful products on one plant, the unpretentious to performance of agriculture rules, quick disintegration of plant tissues after harvest.
So considerable achievements led to spreading of high-yielding and resistant useful plants sorts all over the world, that in principle eliminated the threat of famine for third world countries population. The negative result of this process was that a great number of farmers lost the work and income in such countries as USA, Canada and in countries of United Europe. It is useless to struggle against progress, it is impossible to stop it, therefore the endless attempts of indignant farmers to limit the spreading of new sorts could only for a short while to postpone the process of farm enterprises bankruptcy in all countries in the world.
The achievements of the gene engineering in cattle breeding were impressive, even if not so revolutionary as in case with agriculture plants. By this time far not for all species of useful animals the sample genome was determined. The improving for many species of farm animals was realized by insertion the thoroughly studied genes of other organisms into their hereditary material with further inheritance of useful features. A bulk of errors and unsuccessful experiments essentially restrained the progress in this tendency. Public opinion, suspiciously observing the transgenic actions at animals, imagined with horror the applying of such technologies for human being mutants creation, for this reason the scientists, who worked within this line, didn't at all advance for the "green light". However even the cautious experiments, inclusive possible public discontent, led to emergence of improved farm animals species with twofold better factors than traditional animals species had at the beginning of the century. Such improved animals needed less food, were sick much rare, gave high gains, growth and milk yield and grew quicker. Besides this they were like those domestic animals which we and our ancestry saw during the recent several thousands years. This factor was very important and favorable for further gene engineering applying in cattle breeding, inasmuch the emergence of the animal with unusual external appearance led to the indignation of public opinion.
The gene engineering achievements in the aggregate with computer constructing technologies for the substances with prescribed qualities made the breakthrough in pharmaceutics. Over the last years of new century the world medicinal base was undergone the fundamental changes. About ninety percents of medical preparations, applied at the beginning of the century, were replaced by more effective, more natural for human organism medicines which didn't have the side effects. The most part of these new medical preparations was synthesized not by previous methods in laboratorial and industrial reactors for medical preparations producing, but in living biological reactors. There were used the transgenic animals and plants as biological reactors for producing of medical preparations, especially proteins, enzymes, ferments and many other substances. Necessary for people medical preparations were now the products of transgenic animals and plants vital functions or the products of further processing for raw material, received from them. There were not put aside the microorganisms traditionally used in pharmaceutics. Hundreds species of transgenic microorganisms, yeasts, fungus worked for the benefit of the human in pharmaceutical or manufacturing food staffs companies. In many cases the concrete microorganisms culture produced under vital activity ready-to-use medical preparations which it was possible after post-purification and sterilization to use directly for disease cure and preventive measures.
Quantity of transgenic mammals species, involved in the producing of pharmaceutical raw materials and preparations, was large. By means of them there was produced the most part of modern medical preparations. However the biological synthesis of many medical preparations couldn't be realized in biological reactors in capacity of which the transgenic mammas acted. To receive necessary for medicine and pharmaceutics biological poisons and toxins it had to use the exotic species of snakes, fish, mollusks and other species of animals as biological reactors. The improved insects species also took the worthy place among the producers of medicine preparations.
As for chemical industry, over the recent years there were created about dozens of effective technologies for receiving of chemical products on base of low-energy biocatalytic reactions. New technologies were applied in conditions of real earthly temperatures and pressures with minimal use of power resources. The gene engineering achievement was that biological catalysts, used in these technologies, were worked out by transgenic microorganisms, yeasts, fungus, marine organisms in commercial quantity. New technologies promoted to subdivision of large chemical oppressive to nature enterprises into small friendly to environment productions which used the biological catalysts. Power engineering was exerted the considerable influence on part of genetics. Created by gene engineering methods microorganisms, available to realize the biocatalytic water decomposition, allowed to begin the molecular hydrogen production for needs of industry and life. Hydrogen power engineering, armed with ecology clear recovery mechanism of extraction for the main raw materials, steadily pressed the traditional power engineering which based on combustion of non-renewable nature resources.
Another factor of influence on energetic became the appliance of artificial micro organisms for working out depleted and oil-, coal- and slates-field difficult of access by means of biological extraction inflammable gases out of them.
As for ecology and environmental protection the researches of gene's engineering led to considerable progress. If it is said in general, any usage of developments of this applied science accompanied with reducing of ecological load on the planet. Thankful to mass application of biotechnologies in chemical and pharmacological branches of industry, at the first time of the last two centuries the indicators of civilization pressure on the ambient surrounding had stabilized and even reduced in some points notwithstanding the planet population increase and the increase of mankind demands. In another words, it was a tendency of Earth recovery from chronic disease called environmental pollution.
Biotechnologies began to fulfill their main destination of transition the civilization servicing industries and technologies on high (non-waste) technologies. The ideal final result of this process in the near future the change of all existing technologies on biological ones will be seen. But the possibility of complete transition on biotechnologies the international economics seemed to be unreal but practices of their use often outran the most venturous fantasies. At first sight such industrial branches as metallurgy of irons and base metals, production of building materials, mining, traditional energetic, manufacturing of power-tools and equipment seemed to have very distant relation to biotechnologies. But at the detailed viewing it became clear, that the process of mining was just the typical function of transgenic microorganisms practically realized in some processes of minerals extraction. Producing of ecologically pure building materials can be performed both by microorganisms and the artificial organisms of higher organization degree. Concerning the perspectives of application the biotechnologies in energetic, by that time the encouraging researches results aimed at production the modified transgenetic microorganisms and generating biological tissues which consumed the energy of photosynthesis, chemosynthesis and ambient warmth for direct production of biological electricity had been received.
Power-tools and equipment demands in a number of industrial branches by wide implementation of biotechnologies will be reducing or it will not be at all as it was in pharmacy by transition from industrial methods of synthesis of medical products to the synthesis in biological reactors or in live organisms.
Of course, it is not seen possible to construct the hypersound flying apparatus on the basis of the only biotechnologies. But it is quite possible to produce the necessary constructional materials for these purposes. Technologies of production the superpurified metals and the technologies of aimed crystallization in multiple components melts and solutions, can surely be changed by selective biotechnologies of extraction the superpurified metals out of natural and artificial mediums and by biocatalysts technologies of producing the material with set properties. But the Nature does not stand unified approaches and uses in its practice the most various methods and means of matter influencing. And this very rule was taken by the human being.
The basis for wide application of biotechnologies was the unique and various properties of protein molecules, astronomic quantity of their possible structural forms. The main advantage of protein molecules was the fact that with their help it was possible to control and govern the processes of all possible chemical reactions. By this in medium characterized by stable parameters of temperature, pressure and concentrations could be simultaneously performed different chemical reactions with participation of protein molecules. Direct demonstration of protein molecules significance was the fact of existence the protein life on our planet. Form of protein bodies existence based on foundation of twenty amino acids, was a set of stable logic relations, realized in form of repeated biochemical reactions with participation of protein molecules. The total amount is only twenty various amino acids and millions of different protein molecules each of which is unique in its structure and functions.
For creating of life on the earth the Nature used only twenty amino acids not involving by that some hundreds of other existing ones. It turned to enough for creation of the whole variety of protein life which surrounded us. One can only imagine the proportion and possibilities of creative works opening before the scientists in case of usage of other amino acids for designing and creation of new organisms. It is not even worth noting about thousands of other classes of chemical compounds many of which were represented by thousands of various molecules and on the basis of which the special chemical compounds able to group in self-regenerated systems can be produced.
Belief in unlimited possibilities of protein molecules gained the brains of the scientists and philosophers led to the next high point in studying genes and proteins of biosphere of our planet. Not the last place in that processes the financial experts and manufacturers took. They invested huge sums of money in researches connected with searching design of functional proteins awaiting profits from investing and some revolutionary, high-technologies. In frames of that process mass studying of genetic texts of exotic rare animals and plants and also paleoorganisms for purpose of further comparative analysis and seeking of perspective differences for practical application was proceeding.
In their turn, biologists and biochemists paid their attention on mechanisms of functioning the non-standard, unique and outstanding biological objects in biosphere of the earth. Metabolic processes peculiar to live organisms existing in extreme conditions were of high interest. Vital functions of such organisms were performed in conditions of high pressure of ambient medium, high degree of radioactive radiation and at high concentrations of hard metals and temperatures. In struggle for expansion of the area many organisms kinds in the process of evolution took such niches that from the point of view of our imaginations about possibility of protein life must be peopleless. For example, existence of protein organisms at temperature about three hundred degrees centigrade and pressure above three hundred atmospheres in medium saturated with water solutions of chemically aggressive and toxic compounds near the volcanic fracture on the ocean floor was a vivid example of unlimited opportunities of protein organisms.
Separate trend of biological researches became the seeking of original genetic material and specific biochemical reactions. The most interesting and perspective findings were performed by studying the representatives of extreme mediums of human environment of exotic and relict organisms. They had in their inherited material the memory about mechanisms of functioning in difficult unfavorable conditions of ancient Earth. The scientists took lively interest in relation to the ancients. Notwithstanding the serious level of the human genome researches it was clear that insufficient attention was paid to studying the evolutional humans' ancestors, people with vivid abnormalities, representatives of disappeared nations and tribes, that was some kind of dereliction and required prompt betterment. Re-conducting researches which concerned the earlier non-studied inherited material increased the sum of database used in technologies of gene's engineering and at biotechnologies working out.
Researches of human genome were firstly regulated by strict norms of international law. The gained results were the common property of the mankind and they were accessible for studying to scientists from different countries. But the results of scientific researches of genetic and cytological material of animals and vegetable organisms were, as a rule, the property of institutions, organizations and private investigators. Disputes and discussions of the question, where that knowledge a property of all world society or it was a property of scientific institutions were key ones but they had no result. The developed countries, in which the programs of scientific researches were realized were not interested in loosing control at perspective developments which was directly connected with the control at citizens and juridical persons of their country, devoted themselves to scientific researches. Such control, direct or indirect, always existed.
For the state the monopolistic ownership of high technologies was preferred. Concerning private research organizations and investigators, their position was more frank and harder as it touched such categories as personal well-being, intellectual right, right for self-realization, commercial risk and others. That's why, the numerous attempts of many countries and organizations, aimed at signing the agreements about voluntary handle of research information to the commonly accessible database, were not a success.
Qualitative knowledge and technologies break which took place during the last thirty years allowed to come to solving those tasks which seemed to be future business. The most important one for the mankind was the task of betterment of the human body. All traditional medical treatments in relations to the human organism were based on the principles of help and repair, which were of assisted character and did not lead to perpetual unlimited by time functioning of the human body. More over the question about inheritance of those artificial improvements was not considered seriously because such question was thought to be premature and technically inexecutable.
Now the points of betterment of the human body systems and optimization of separate metabolic reactions became the object of serious researches. Scientists had the card of metabolic reactions of the human organism although it was not completed but still included the variety of completed functional chains and all-sufficient fragments which could be objects of theoretical and then practical improvement. Local tasks which were put by the scientists coming to theoretical betterment of the human body were quite unaccustomed and even exotic. For example, one group of scientists performed a computer modeling of the gastric digestion process as a set of chemical reactions and aimed to include in the digestion process the developed ferments making possible to degrade the vegetable tissue on useful components. Analysis of received information showed that the needed gene responsible for the synthesis of artificial ferment could be without negative by-effects and depression of existing useful functions and could be added to the set of genes of special cells from the epithelium of human's stomach. The improved human's digestive system as it was awaited would lead to change of alimentation structure and by that displace the accent in side of consuming the vegetable products of wide assortment.
Another group of scientists was busy with betterment of hemoglobin protein standing oxygen. The aim of such researches was receiving of some new proteins similar by their functional opportunities to hemoglobin protein and joining the existing system of blood supply and bleeding which could deliver more oxygen and would have functional optimum in temperature range of thirty - thirty-seven degrees centigrade. Such protein synthesizing in the human body would allow to extend the range of physical loads and to ensure lasting lung inspiration in water and in conditions of organism supercooling. Even inletting to the bloodstream as an injection, such protein could considerably increase survivability in emergency conditions of sailors, submariners and airmen and ease the life of people with heart and lung troubles and simply fat ones.
More exotic were the works on producing biologically sensors compatible with human body. Expectedly such additional sense organs could grasp the electromagnetic waves of wide range, ultrasound and infrasound acoustic vibrations, determine concentrations of chemical substances and radiation intensiveness. Such biological sensors were used for million years by earth organisms and to construct on their base the human compatible devices (read new organs) was quite real although uncustomary for public opinion. Such questions were discussed and investigated by thousands of research institutions that promised many interesting discoveries and developments in the nearest future.
The process of application the micromachines and microrobots for executing operative and prophylactic procedures inside the human organism gained momentum. In this very field as in no other, together with technologies of molecular assembling the ones of synthesis-biological compounds with set properties were widely used for creation of perfected devices.
Base medical micro machine consisted of micro chip having parameters comparable with ones of erythrocytes, electrochemical motor which was a set of protein molecules realizing locomotive function and function of loading capsular. As instrument for performing set function the spent biologically active substances, such as medical products, toxins, ferments, etc containing in the loading capsular, were used. In case of necessity aggressive chemical compounds, namely acids and alkalis, could be used. In those cases, when more effective was application of physical methods of influence, medical micro machine could bear mechanical micro instruments.
The main tasks which were performed by medical micro machines of the first generation were the purifying of blood vessels and ducts of different glands, treatment of inner ulcers and inflammations. Besides the nerves adhesion and lithotripsy of gallstones of various dislocation was possible. In those micro machines electronic micro chip gave commands, namely walk, stop, move, open the capsular, etc., to executive mechanisms after that came the tooling which fulfilled required operative and preventive influence on the human organism.
Application sphere of medical products normalizing genes' work had expanded. Earlier such medicines were used for prevention and treatment of inherited diseases and also to control programs of growing the culturing outside the human body tissues and organs. But at that time it appeared the possibility to affect the whole organs and tissues of functioning human body with the help of remedies normalizing genes' work. Usage of medicines normalizing genes' work for influencing big cells massifs became possible after the fact when new products of purpose delivery of such remedies minimized the risk of undesirable by-effects.
Simultaneous corrective influencing on all specialized cells performing the same functions in organism that was of integral tissues and organs became a reality. For this purpose inside the human body big quantity of normalizing genes, products oriented on performing operations of the same kind in all specialized cells at ones with the help of remedies of purpose delivery, was put. Appliance of such technologies in practice meant the regeneration of depressed functions of integral organs and tissues. In such a manner the first objects of such corrective influence became cells of heart muscle after infarction and age changes, liver cells at non-advanced stages of cirrhosis and also cells of lungs muscles and various connective tissues. These technologies had good application perspectives as they allowed to replace natural genes in any cell of human body by the improved ones that entailed changing of biochemical reactions, synthesis of new effective proteins and as a result betterment of metabolism of the whole organism in future. Substitution of prematurely aged human's organs and tissues with new ones, grown inside the human body, growing of new not existed earlier organs, all these became real and quite realizable for contemporaries many of who were born in period of time when such perspectives were only described in fantastic novels.
Science has come to questions of improvement of human body functioning on cells level from the other side. In the process of vital activities, after suitable intervals in all organism's cells beyond damages and genetic mechanisms failures and as a result of such processes took place the uptake of various chemical compounds somehow hindering the normal cells functioning. That's why tasks of qualitative purification of endocellular space were put before medicine and genetics quite long ago. In this very question were considerable reserves of active longevity and good health. Means of selective extraction of redundant and harmful substances out of cells were worked out in many scientific centers of the world. Problem of extraction turned to be more complicated than the solved one of purpose delivery of medical products.
In general case developed methods of selective extraction were based on the following principles. Some kind of chemical compound or functional protein complex which had to join with unneeded substances not interacting by this with useful compounds was introduced directly in the cell and together with them it had to let out the cell and entered the blood channel.
Besides, methods of neutralization of aggressive and unneeded substances were developed. One of such method foresaw delivery in cell such chemical compounds which by interaction with chemically aggressive life products formed chemically neutral compounds. In such a manner neutralization of biohazards as minimum was reached. Another variant foresaw delivery in cell the special organic compounds able to disjoin molecules of aggressive and unneeded substances on small parts which, in their turn, could be used as raw material in endocellular synthesis.
In some cases, when operative space was only a small part of an organ (tissue), procedure of cells purifying from the stored ballast was carrying out with the help of protein complexes with addition of ferromagnetic particles. For these purposes means of purpose delivery of protein complexes were fitted with additional ferromagnetic particles. After fulfillment of task of purifying the endocellular medium ferromagnetic complexes were extracted from cells in blood stream by means of magnetic or electromagnetic field or were comminuted by strong magnetic impulse on particles of such size which could be removed by means of natural metabolism.
All developed variants of endocellular space release from ballast chemical compounds for their successful implementation needed comprehensive knowledge about structure and properties of substances which are the cells biowaste or the products of by-chemical reactions. Taking into account that in their researches scientists accentuated studying the substances directly participating in reactions of endocellular metabolism, studying of endocellular metabolism biowaste remained permanently without paying specialists' attention. If big variety of substances being products of by-chemical reactions and thousands various cell kinds the biowastes of which were not similar were added to all above mentioned the complexity and range of problem of purifying the endocellular space from needless chemical storages became clear. Joint efforts of biochemists, geneticists, cytologists, chemists-designers and representatives of tens other professions must be involved in solving the stated problem.
In the third decade the problem of cancerous diseases was not paid attention to at all. At the last thirty years struggle with these diseases was on the top of strengths and technologies that led to decreasing of number of incurable cancer forms. Up-to-date application of achievements of gene engineering, pharmaceutics and cytology gave positive integral effect at various cancer forms cure. Number of lethal outcomes among treated sick people slashed at last fifteen years that changed society attitude to cancer diseases. Feeling of fatality and hopelessness accompanying cancer diseases at earlier time had changed in people conscious with feeling of quiet assurance. Understanding of mechanisms of this disease became with each coming year fuller and fuller and led at last to final victory over it after a number of partial wins over various cancer forms. Promised gold monument to a person who won the cancer was not built as it was a collective win of all mankind at which millions of people during long period of time worked. At the same time, pharmaceutical enterprises untried a number of new remedies effecting the metabolic rate in human organism. These remedies were synthesized after studying mechanisms of slowed-down metabolism in warm-blooded hibernating animals and accelerated fish metabolism. New kind of medical products was used both for therapeutic and preventive purposes. Decreasing of metabolic rate began to be applied for slowing-down of remedies remove from the human organism. By this the required for treatment number of medical products decreased. In cases of acute poisoning and diseases with purpose of slowing-down the processes of poisoning and toxic substances spread it also be recommended to use new medical products. If it was required to activate metabolism with purpose of mass attack on causative substance of disease or for acceleration of regeneration and tissue healing, remedies accelerating the metabolism were used.
This group of medical products had good perspectives of use as a remedy allowing the human to redistribute strengths and opportunities in time and to use effectively natural organism resources.
Regulation of metabolism speed was based on incompatibility of conditions existed in human body and conditions being optimal for realization of single biochemical processes. With appearing of technologies of simultaneous selective influencing on big quantities of functioning cells it turned to be a real opportunity to create optimal conditions for realization of marked biochemical processes not damaging by this the metabolism process in whole. In another words, it became possible to change the speed of separate biochemical reactions that, taking into consideration the complicated interaction in the human body, could be used for controlling independent processes in the human body. As the metabolism speed is tightly connected with organism temperature, in some cases for quick and momentary change of it the simpler means allowing to change for some period of time the human body's temperature were applied.
Experience of regulation of human organism's temperature and metabolism speed allowed to approach to increasing the human active life continuity from the unexpected side. Numerous experiments and results of computer modeling led to a conclusion that human body's temperature lowering and metabolism slowing-down during night sleep did not cause any irreversible and dangerous changes for human body. Such an approach was recommended for adults as means of prolonging the lifetime. From the point of view of scientists, constant using of new remedies beginning from age of thirty would add eight-nine years to the average human lifetime. In cases when according to medical prescriptions or conditions of professional activity human being is often to accelerate metabolism or rise the body temperature or to do these both, or he is to slow-down when sleep his own metabolism for compensation of negative consequences. By providing the representatives of strenuous professions, such as life-savers, sailors, spacemen, geologists, hunters and many others, with medical products, new medicines have taken the honorable place. Resembling by their bracing effect with effect of light drugs, remedies accelerating metabolism did not cause the effect of addiction or psychological dependence. Those were complicated protein molecules by their chemical structure resemble with natural hormones of the human body by their structure. Owing to appliance of the newest technologies of computer designing and disclosure of mechanisms of human body functioning it became possible to create complicated protein compounds which harmonically blend with human metabolism developed during millions evolution years.
At the same time the detailed studying of metabolic processes of some noted submarines was carried out. Selection of organism kinds for detailed studying was performed according to the criteria of adjustability to extreme environmental conditions and narrow specialization. The first objects for examination were cachalot which could swiftly dip into the depth up to three kilometers without prejudice to organism and being there for some period of time without additional oxygen intake, also penguins surely undergoing lasting low temperatures, dolphins, these masters in sphere of acoustic location. Scientists attention was paid to some kinds of deep-sea fishes thank to their abilities to orient in black darkness of ocean depths and to regulate the chemoluminescence processes. Various kinds of electric flairs and eels gained in evolution process the ability to produce and accumulate electricity were interesting for scientists as an example of successful creation of biological generators of electrical energy. Special attention was paid by researches to California fish called lucania, dwelling in hot natural sources, in which water temperature reached the point of sixty degrees centigrade. Any animal protein in alive organism stops functioning under such temperatures. Availability of such organism itself in the Earth biosphere was the best evidence of possibility of extension the existence limits both for transgenic organisms and for human being.
Object of studying became also fish dallia, dwelling in waters of the North America and which is ice-bound till spring. Studying of metabolism details under conditions of frequent freezing and unfreezing was very important for working out the technologies of immersion in anabiosis of higher animals and a human being.
Generally speaking, scientists' interest was raised by unique metabolic processes occurring in organism of examined animals and fishes both in comfortable and extreme existence conditions. Decoding of rout maps of the type "gene - protein - biochemical reaction" allowed to compare realization principles of the same features and functions in various organisms. Furthermore it was a selection of elements of natural "biological constructor", fit for using as universal building blocks by creation of improved, transgenic, cybernetic organisms, designed according to will and desire of a person. Decoded rout maps were constantly renewed, made more exact, compared with fundamental features and processes, peculiar for earth biosphere and took their place in general metabolism view of protein life on the Earth.
Intensive works of optimization of natural protein molecules became an obligate result of perfection of computer models, reflecting metabolic processes in organism of human being, animals and plants. At the first stage, these were theoretical researches performed in computer models. They carried out with appliance of designing technologies of chemical compounds with set properties and technologies of computer visualization of parameters and features of the model. Practical implementations of the received results were not the matter of the far future but on the contrary. Together with chemists-designers specialists of gene's engineering and biotechnologies worked ready to realize in short terms useful theoretical developments. But the way from computer model of protein molecule up to its synthesis was still lasting and difficult especially in case of not existing in nature, but constructed virtually protein molecules. These works were highly perspective while they turned the evolution basics and, as it was expected, could lead with time passing to qualitative jump in earth biosphere development.
For improvement of natural proteins and for synthesis of new ones with set properties the protein-prototype was chosen. The researchers needed by this the detailed information about the structure and changes of space arrangement of the parts of protein molecular in process of its involution in the space structure inclusive location and sequence of parts joining. Exhaustive knowledge about processes of protein-prototype synthesis in the organism, about genes coded its properties, reactions accompanying synthesis of this protein in living cell were very important. Comprehensive knowledge allowed to represent the process of functioning of protein molecular as sequence of changes of arranged in space surfaces of potential energy with stated accuracy. After creation of computer model with determined accuracy degree there were works on its improvement. If purpose of the work was improvement of protein function, for gaining the qualitative result the computer models of molecules of chemical compounds, participating in realization of this function, were created. Computer model of protein molecular was improved by means of optimization of space arrangement for potential energy surfaces. By this more suitable variants from the point of view of performance the basic function in existing surrounding of accompanying chemical compounds, were selected. Further selection of amino acids and other chemical compounds, participating in building the protein molecular with improved properties and grouping in space arrangement of potential energy surfaces, was performed by means of enumeration of variants with appliance of computer models of amino acids and other chemical compounds.
In those cases when improving protein successfully performed its functions, but protein molecular itself was unstable or the improvement of protein molecular itself was required under the condition that space arrangement of potential energy surfaces would not change. By this in protein molecular elements (these could be both amino acids and other chemical compounds) some strengthening, reinforcing spots in its space structure, were inlet.
These structural elements were not to form undesirable chemical relations and participate in other biochemical reactions. Thus, at the end of the thirties of the twenty-first century the science came up to practical improvement of space structure and functions of natural protein molecules and production of artificial ones with developed properties.
Science and technique progress can not be stopped. And if public opinion is against of some processes and tendencies in science and technique it doesn't mean that works in this direction will be stopped. Any state does out of morality when it turns the questions of its own safety or monopole state in strategic fields. Just in such direction the process of human body improvement was developing, when in many countries of the world secretly or against the public opinion intensive works of creation the improved individual for military purposes began. The existing level of science and technique did not allow at that time to implement into genetic material of an adult the artificially produced genes responsible for performing new functions and thus to gain the genetically modified human being on the basis of an adult. But tens of industrially developed countries were in position to grow up a regenerated human being just out of egg-cell having preliminary replaced some genes in it. The implantable genes, depending on experiment purpose, could have information about some morphologic characteristic which was noted on an embryo or a baby, or predetermined development process of the human body in definite age.
For receiving of the results of such experiments it required from some months up to some years. Natural human genes only, taken from data bank of human genes, were used in these experiments. Of course, morphological features, predetermining the beauty or right human proportions were not interesting for military research groups. Their preferences were directed at creation super-strong, hardy, executive person who is medium unpretentious. Such purpose could be gained by means of appliance of those genes, many of which were referred to the class of defective ones, as their realization led to various deformities. In everyday life presence of such features in human being considered to be departure from the norm, some kind of genetic disease and was to be early distinguished and treated.
Besides the researches of such kind, in some authoritarian countries the experiments of implementation in inherited human material natural genes of animals, plants and microorganisms, were secretly carried out. The above mentioned works were aimed at working out new kinds of genetic weapon and were very cynical and ignored all moral norms. Here were also under the development the other kinds of genetic weapon aimed at by-living transformation of human organism in recombinant and nonviable organism.
Unlike a number of attempts of secrete experimenting with human gene, the ones of producing the transgenic plants, microorganisms and, fewer, animals became everyday reality of natural sciences. Successful attempts of improvement some earth organisms by means of genome optimization owing to intraspecific genes' fund and satisfactory experience of transgenic interkind transferring of useful features, prepared the theoretical basis and means of practical optimization of genome with the help of artificial genes. Necessity of such works was quite evident as they were aimed at widening the spreading field of important for world economy of kinds and sorts of earth wildlife. Moreover, appliance of artificial genes was interesting for mankind as necessary condition for settlement of some planets of the primary planet with artificial organisms, able to change conditions existing on these planets.
A mankind set to solving such serious tasks, many of which yet yesterday seemed to be just a fantasy, with determination and attempt to fulfill them as soon as possible. For successful fulfilling of set scientific tasks it was required to carry out a plenty of researches in many new fields. In basis of many future achievements was the ability to design artificial genes, able to realize the required feature or biochemical reaction in the whole organism. It was very difficult to insert artificially produced gene into existing genome as well as to insert a new biochemical reaction into the set for million years metabolism.
Each finding on the way of producing artificial genes was really costless. As it happened in practice difficulty of solving was determined by set task. Designing of artificial gene determining the possibility of microorganism to accumulate selectively the chosen chemical compound or a plant growing speed, was relatively not difficult case for existing technologies level. With growing of new features quantity and number of artificial genes, complexity of creation of their interconnected and functioning complex was enlarging, and in case of creation the simplest artificial microorganism was great. For example, creation of germs on the basis of the earth organisms genome, able to produce oxygen and accumulate organic substance in Mars conditions was difficult but quite feasible as a plenty of prototypes performing similar functions existed. Microorganism with the same functions but designed for Venus conditions which did not have any analogies and prototypes on our planet, required the creation of quite new genome coding the complex of non-existent on our Earth biochemical reactions. Metabolism of such microorganism was based on protein molecules built on non-used in earth biosphere amino acids and included a number of biochemical reactions foreign to earth life forms. Task of such complexity was beyond powers of modern science though science publicity understood that these difficulties were of temporary character.
In considering period of time many serious questions were solving. One of the most important one was about extension of limits for existing protein life on the Earth. Deliberately and thoroughly works on the development of the first artificial genes enlarging plants, microorganisms and animals area were performing.
Geneticists studying mechanism for genomes of extinct animals and plants, had collected in the last years a wide material as non-full texts and fragments of these genomes. Understanding of common conformity to evolution natural laws and common principles of live biological systems structure allowed to elaborate some missing fragments genomes of many extinct organisms by close ones by fragments of genomes currently existing animals and plants. As a result, a real opportunity of creation animals and plants disappeared millions years ago with high degree of original similarity, has appeared. Such experiments were repeatedly conducted, many of which had finished successfully, but the peculiar resonance was not gained. Extrahistorical animals and plants were just subject of interest for specialists and zoo habitués. Wide publicity acquainted to everyday success and achievements in genetics and in other corresponding sciences did not show amazement and admiration with attained success. But still, this field was very perspective as studying the ancient organisms, lived on the Earth in times characterized by unfavorable conditions, and gave rich material for designing the organisms able to survive under the Venus and Mars conditions. Of course, the most ancient earth organisms for studying of which it was required for scientists to revise the palaentological material up to life beginning on the Earth, were of great value for researchers.
Thank to achievements of natural sciences the conditions for human living on the planet has considerably improved. Threat of starvation had by-passed as well as the most diseases. Ways of human and civilization evolution based on unconflict coexistence with the Nature on the basis of harmonic interchanges, were definitely seen. By this, the most existing human demands would be fulfilled on the basis of using the biotechnologies. Quick changing of human body was seen as evident and inevitable, as an obligate result of occurring evolutionary processes. Intensive developments of human society would require sooner or later the enlargement of human living area by means of settling of planets of earth group and mastering other star systems. Progression of earth civilization on plants of primary system and the planets of other star systems could be performed by means of changing the natural conditions of these planets close by the common characteristics to Earth conditions. The alternative way was the transformation of human body in such a manner to maximally corresponded to conditions of open up planets. Scientists paid serious attention to studying the mechanisms of feature realization in different representatives of the Earth biosphere.v
The genetic material of plants and microorganisms was the best studied. Practical application of controlling mechanisms for growing processes of vegetable transgenetic organisms became one of the analysis results of received information. Joint in single plant quick grow possibilities and producing qualitative wood with improved properties favoured wide usage of wooden materials in building. Traditional beauty and chemical inertness of natural wood plus additional qualities such as high mechanical and chemical stability, content of useful substances and possibility of further growth directly in building constructions have led to exclusion from human everyday life many kinds of plastics and polymers.
At the same time at the interface of many sciences a new discipline has born, namely foodstuff designing. Emerging of new trend was predetermined by time requirements and increased mankind demands. Notwithstanding seemed narrow specialization, foodstuff designing had great future and good development perspectives. The main tasks of new science became development of foodstuff needed for providing metabolic and energetic processes of human organism depending on taken form of body tunic. Primarily foodstuff designing was aimed at the repletion of wants both of modern individual and a person of future.
Researches and experiments began at once at a number of directions. One of this direction was determining of precise list and quantities of chemical compounds needed for human body functioning at different periods of life cycle. Having this information the other groups of scientists, keeping in mind the existing human demands, had optimized the structure of existing food resources. The last ones were life products of animals and plants the improved and transgenic organisms inclusive. One more group of researchers was busy with computer designing and with synthesis of new chemical compounds appliance of which in food products had positive effect on human organism what was expressed in recovery, rejuvenation and purification of human organism. Besides, new products were primary designed as having high energetic and nutritive value not mentioning by this good gustatory qualities. Designing of complicated food products being emerging at the interface of many sciences, gave great possibilities for creation to scientists.
Those chemical compounds used for producing food products though were calculated with high accuracy degree on computer models, needed additional exterior researches. That's why the applicable chemical compounds were undergone testing by those methodologies as in case with medicals products testing. For this purpose considerable quantities of synthesized chemical compounds were required. After correction of technologies of receiving new chemical compounds and series of finishing testing for absence of by- and undesired effects, the new food products on their basis could be recommended for human use.
But this was only some kind of partial problem solving of optimal provision of human organism with energetic and building substances by means of appliance of new chemical compounds. Ideal decision was the one, by which the complicated food products and their separate components would synthesize, grow and produce by special plants and animals. Artificial biological organisms able to produce complex foodstuff were not developed yet. Thus, development of new nutritive chemical compounds and food products gave development impulse to many applied and theoretical sciences, in particular required producing the new transgenic organisms and ones with factitious genes. It could be only imagined what efforts were to be made by people for that only to relish new food which was some kind of masterpiece having perfect taste, appetizing form and delicious aroma. Of course, chemistry possibilities allowed to synthesize new nutritive chemical compounds in industrial reactors fulfilling all safety norms.
But what was to do, if the human just didn't want to eat the foods production of which reminded him of manufacturing technologies for medical preparations. The human being of the twenty first century was a capricious creature and required from production, science and maintaining services the qualitative satisfaction of his growing requirements.
The appliance in technologies of chemical constructing for computer models required the systematization and ordering of available knowledge. In a majority of science disciplines there was intensified the process of knowledge systematization, intended to transform them in an easy-to-use form for the computer simulation technologies. Especially this event touched upon the genetics, chemistry, biology and attendant to them sciences. After discussion in scientific and patent establishments the questions of the priorities and author's rights there was decided to combine all available chemical compounds models in common database. This decision was supported by legislation. Within a three-year period corresponding laws were passed and took effect in most states. The process of legislative field creation was accompanied by forming of common database for chemical compounds computer models. Within a three-year period there was created common database which combined all available computer models, relevant to the substance's structure and qualities. The further database improving was proposed by preparation of unitary standards for software.
The common database was of a complex structure and was elaborated as instrument of transition period. It was expected that it would join the "common space of virtual modeling", would become its constituent, displaying visually the chemical world arrangement. The decision to combine chemical compounds computer models economized the resources and time, necessary for coordination of experiments and researches in chemistry with other sciences and tendencies. Gradually, step-by-step knowledge of many important for mankind progress sciences were transferred into three-dimensional virtual form. As a consequence of this process there was started common standards preparation for creation of the "common space of virtual modeling" levels, for effective joining of elaborating levels in common virtual space.
By this time the nanotechnologies reached high level of development. Main attention in the process of their improving was paid to molecular and atomic substance assembling. The growth of mankind needs was accompanied by needs increasing of many industries in materials with prescribed features. The majority of them could be received only by nanotechnologies methods. What is more the difficulties of economic character sometimes hindered to nanotechnologies applying. In some cases one-time demand in materials exceeded the equipment capability, but it was the squandering in the view of economics to build additional specialized productive facilities. In other cases the value of received materials with prescribed qualities was extremely high, that made them non-competitive in comparison with materials received by more crude techniques of chemical synthesis. However there was number of tendencies where the nanotechnologies were without a rival.
The most important of them was the production of elementary base for nano-electronics needs. The specific needs of this branch were characterized by mass vast number usage of the miniature sizes elements of the same type and promoted to effective appliance of nanotechnologies. The molecular assembling of elementary base simultaneously with connection elements assembling allowed to realize practically the mass production of "computer" substance. "Computer" substance represented the microprocessor, unrestricted by dimensions (infinite three-dimensional micro scheme), the power of which was restricted only by geometrical dimensions and also by conditions of mechanical strength and thermal conductivity. "Computer" substance, theoretically possessing the possibility for limitless growth and infinite complication, could become the place of spontaneous birth and evolution of artificial intelligence. The scientists and philosophers paused in doubts, realizing in full measure the consequences of such possibility. The problem issue, weather it was worth to create the prerequisites and conditions for artificial intelligence spontaneous birth and thereby let the jinn out of bottle, had collected more arguments.
Catalysts improving were realizing without a backward glance to social and political problems of some states according to derivative laws of complex technique systems. Practically there were used different prime catalysts, promoting to optimal performance of one or another concrete chemical reaction. There were created about several dozens more complex catalysts which allowed to realize in series two and more chemical reactions. The efforts of scientists and technologists were aimed at receiving of evolving catalysts. Such catalysts were intended for production of complex chemical compounds in technological spaces of low volume. Under functioning process they changed predictably their catalytic qualities depending on environmental conditions, and moreover there was a possibility to control this process.
The influence of public opinion for ecology problems solution was very considerable. Any innovations in the sphere of earth ecology were under public scrutiny. The advent of new technologies allowed to start the creation of non-waste industries. The concept of non-waste industry based on idea according to which any industrial waste were nothing else but raw materials for production of useful materials and substances. Under this concept there were built several non-waste chemical industries of closed cycle type and pollution-free for the environmental. The catalysts of serial operation which were the newest developments had the main role in realization of non-waste industries concept. These were complex chemical compounds with several catalytic centers, every of which was activated under pre-set fixed parameters of working environmental. It was possible to call these newest instruments of nanotechnologies the molecular robots which realized the programmed functions. As opposed to computer programs which were created from scratch, the catalysts of serial operation realized the complete programs, selected out of a great number potential, created by Nature itself, programs. Designing of serial operation catalysts was a laborious work, inasmuch as required the calculation of changes for catalyst molecular structure depending on working environmental parameters. In spite of vast computational power of computer network, the successes along this line were isolated. However it was the priority tendency inasmuch as it promoted to decrease the harmful effect of civilization to the environmental. The improving of serial operation catalysts promised to lead in the near future to technological hitch in many industries.
This was the time of one more ecology concept realization - the universal application of materials which were self-destructive after performance of their functions. Work of any industrial enterprises according to this concept was not to accumulate the durable waste. To realize this requirement it was necessary to create conditions for self-destruction of waste and their decomposition for simple elements. Practically it was impossible to realize the process of industrial waste self-destruction with hundred-per-cent effect, but even the first imperfect technologies promoted to decrease the quantity of industrial waste dumps and prevent to formation of new one. Some technologies of self-destructive materials production were developed earlier, however their application required considerable cash investments into manufacture modernization, that wasn't always realizable. The opinion of many experts had the negative effect too as they considered that transformation of industrial waste into simple compounds was as good as spend money like water. It is more effective to collect and convert the waste. However these experts suggested to strive with consequences, but not with the reasons of environmental pollutions. The reasons were mass production of alien to earth biosphere materials and unpredictable behavior of human being under realization of tasks by collecting of domestic and factory waste. Unfortunately common mankind cultural level was still low that hampered realization of many projects, requiring the conscious and scrupulous execution, particularly the projects on different waste collecting and converting in a planetary scale. In principle liquidation of waste long-term accumulation resolved the environmental pollution problem and didn't require human element presence.
During the recent years the economic laws which were clear to everybody started to work in the sphere of self-destructive materials production. The prime cost decreasing for producible chemical production and application of new technologies for chemical synthesis allowed to put self-destructive materials production to firm base of financial profit. Self-destructive package and wrapping was the main part of producible output, first of all because of it universal and mass appliance. Along with this there were made attempts to optimize composition and structure of waster for a whole series of industries with purpose to make them able to destruct quickly in natural conditions. These were attempts to find a method for problem solving by unexpected, contrary to the logic way, attempts to go on from sequence to reason, from elaborating of universal set for self-destructive waste to change of technologies which generated these waste. There is a need to remark that these attempts outran the time and carried mainly academic volitional character.
Unification of chemical substances computer models in common database rose the new possibilities for virtual simulation and turnkey execution for chemical technologies. There was made the complication of chemical level for the "common space of virtual modeling". The complication laid in taking into account the additional physical parameters which were not of vital importance under technologies simulating. Besides this unification of chemical and physical levels was the significant step in computer simulating evolution, the step to the "common space of virtual modeling" universalization. Constructing and execution of chemical technologies in "common space of virtual modeling" required more and more calculating computers power. There were billions of possible combinations for physical parameters, every of which determined the billions of variants for assigned tasks practical execution. And even the practice of appliance under complex tasks solving of free computer power with value up to one billion Teraflops, which became usual and daily, didn't always lead to receiving of timely optimal decision. The implicit, concealed reason of this was physical arrangement of macrocosm, with the uncertainty laws, peculiar to it, obligatory account of which rose the astronomic number of variants, requiring careful study. In spite of existing difficulties scientists forecasted that in the near future the construction and execution of any chemical technologies will be realized in "common space of virtual modeling".
The common database for computer models of chemical substances was replenished thanks to models which were more and more complex by their structure and chemical compounds structure. In such a way all that turned out that there were united in common database the efforts of two sciences - chemistry and genetics, dealing with subjects of different complexity levels. Even chemistry of organic synthesis, studying complex substances on base of carbon, dealt with molecules which were simpler for two-three stages than protein molecules of living organisms. That's why common database was primordially formed as consisted of two large computer models groups. The first group concluded the molecules models of inorganic and not complicated organic compounds. The second group, united the models of protein molecules and other chemical compounds, peculiar to living organisms, was incommensurable by level of complexity with the first group. The differences in complexity of two models groups were defined by difference in complexity of inorganic compounds and molecules structure, which were peculiar to biological life forms.
Among the great number of possible variants for evolution of substance from inanimate matter to Reason, by now it was known to mankind only one and all other were still remained a sealed mystery. Therefore computer simulation technologies according to expectations allowed in the near future to start the simulation of unrealized variants for substance evolution, from simple chemical compounds to complex forms, peculiar to living and self-organizing systems. And for the time being the technologies of computer constructing and modeling were in generally focused on elaboration of chemical compounds with different complexity, necessary for medicine and industry. By the end of the third decade it was managed to create computer models and synthesize in laboratory environment several complex enough organic compounds with predetermined qualities - catalysts, enzymes and other specialized substances. The further complication of subjects for virtual chemical designing required advanced setting of a goal, and, curiously enough, theoretical and philosophic concepts for creation of other life forms and civilization development trends.
One of the most successful developments of the scientists was creation of previously nonexistence in nature family of photocatalytic compounds, which were able to repeat the process of photosynthesis, polished by Nature, one would think, to perfection, with more high efficiency coefficient. At that each kind of these compounds used at most effective the energy of e-field radiation of defined length wave. By all its similarity with plant chlorophyll, representing the achievements of Nature in photocatalysis sphere, creation of new photocatalytic compounds became great achievement of human idea. First in practice there was presented the possibility of improving for fundamental Nature solutions, polished by millions years of evolution.
The usage range of new developments was extremely wide. Photocatalytic compounds were applied in agriculture, power engineering and industry, and also in gene engineering developments. For example, one of the perspective spheres of appliance for photocatalytic compounds was creation of artificial microorganisms, which were able to produce oxygen and organic substance at the surface of Mars and in high atmosphere of Venus. Also important factor was that new photocatalytic compounds could harmonically replaced chlorophyll in majority of earth plants, at the same time didn't touch upon the whole chain of the existent biochemical reactions, in other words there was proved the possibility of earth plants metabolism improving by way of chlorophyll molecules change of artificial compounds. Forced modification of earth plants metabolism in a planetary scale according to scientists prognosis could lead to modification of climate, atmosphere content, biosphere species composition, in other words it had many features of natural disaster. That's why the appliance of artificial compounds for improving of earth organisms metabolism was under strict control of special services. Their main task and care was not to allow the unauthorized dissemination of artificial compounds.
Task-oriented longstanding work, focused on receiving of substances and materials with predetermined qualities, at first led to theoretical developments, and some later to practical receiving of new chemical compounds classes. They became the base for new materials with qualities which there were not previously met in nature. In such a way some materials with unique qualities were emerged at practice, for example, such as had anomalously low friction in wide temperature range, or such as possessed extremely high thermal conductivity or, on the contrary, such as had colossal heat capacity. Under creation of such materials scientists oriented to achievements of substance's theoretically possible qualities, overcoming the difficulties without weariness.
The modern technique as the integrated expression of possibilities for science, mechanisms and technologies reached such level of development when it became possible and economical to produce the construction materials under overpressure conditions. Earlier such technologies couldn't be realized because of limit of attainment for physical properties of existing construction materials. The technologies of molecular assembling, allowing to receive the structured materials with ideal lattice, high-temperature superconducting materials, manufactured on the basis of nanotubes, and also other achievements promoted to overpressure technologies progress. Manufacturing of industrial serial equipment became regular result, and it was intended for production of structural materials and machines finished parts by means of overpressure method. Based on this equipment, there were received the dozens of new constructed materials types in different countries of the world, which had data close to substance's theoretical qualities. In restrained terms the real materials qualities exceeded the design theoretical performance, that led to entry of essential corrections into theory of substance structure. The first products of overpressure technologies were details, made of powder materials, including various ceramics. In the near future the further progress of this perspective trend hold out a hope of threefold lessening for earth industry needs in primary resources, using for structural materials manufacturing. The expected economy resulted from civilization needs lessening in building and structural materials on the principle of their life-cycle increase and practically feed stock hundred-per-cent usage.
The result of overpressure technologies appliance was mass production of different superconductive structural materials. Superconductive materials for electric-power transmission, transformation, storage and keeping were necessary for the world economy already yesterday. Reason of this was electric power ecological cleanness, its universality and usability in any industrial branches. The emergence of durable and reliable superconductive structural materials led to creation of new generation for electric motors, transformers, generators and other electric machines. Laws of evolution for technical systems required several systems overlapping in one functional element. Production of inexpensive ceramic superconductors allowed to use them as structural materials in addition to their usage as electrically conductive material. Such design solution simplified the structure of many electric machines and devices, allowed to create new samples which were able to work effectively under negative temperatures full range up to zero degrees centigrade. This temperature range covered needs of cosmonautics and also partly the aviation and power engineering needs.
Hydrogen fuel took more and more important place in the world power engineering. New technologies of hydrogen and water production, basing on artificial photocatalytic compounds appliance, and also new safety equipment for hydrogen storage promoted to usage of perspective fuel in industry and private life. By the end of the third decade about eight percents of transport means all over the world were equipped by pollution-free engines, using the hydrogen as fuel. By this time about the same part of industry energy demands was covered by hydrogen usage in power engineering. The hydrogen consumption in private life grew also in a rapid rate. Many enterprises as well as private persons purchased the autonomous hydrogen generators to satisfy not great power demands. Having at hand the autonomic hydrogen resource and the possibilities for combustion gas safety storage, the human itself could calculate and regulate his energy demands, regardless the policy of electric and thermal power major produces. As a consequence, after this there was the purchase of combustion cells, transport that operated on hydrogen fuel, heating systems, in other words the basic essentials, adapted to new power resource. All this was very good in view of production capacities use and work creation.
It is necessary to note that nearly mythical ecological cleanness of hydrogen fuel remained such only theoretically. Practically the hydrogen combustion process in Earth atmosphere was accompanied by high temperatures and production of nitrogen oxides in large quantities. To reach true ecological cleanness it was required to exclude the extraneous gas presence, in particular the nitrogen, from the hydrogen combustion process. The ensuring of hydrogen oxidizing reaction by pure oxygen greatly complicated and rose the price of energy hydrogen installations. The appliance of membrane technologies became the way out. It is indicative that such necessity contemporized by the time with the possibility of qualitative selective membranes production by methods of molecular assembling. The problem was solved to a tight schedule, each energy hydrogen installation was completed by the autonomic device for pure oxygen supply.
The technologies for biological extraction of chemical compounds direct from natural and technological environment were gaining momentum. These technologies corresponded to principles of moderation and ecological safety. Main idea of a new approach was not to take the primary resources from the environment in store, over needful. New conception for its successful realization needed the adaptation for the variety of industrial and everyday technologies, directed eventually to ensure absolute autonomy for the human being.
Extraction of chemical compounds from the environment by biological means was practical realization of fully formed views about the necessity of harmonious relationship with the environment, about solicitous attitude to Nature. Biological extraction of chemical compounds from the environment and their following usage for the human needs satisfaction was one of the constituents for the existent social processes. These were processes which were aimed to attainment of complete independence, self-sufficiency and autonomy for human being, would it be within the bounds of family, city or country. Need for independence, so peculiar to the human just as communication need, predetermined future social arrangement for the human society, as living together of free and independence individuals. And any technical solutions along with scientific discoveries, oriented to this need satisfaction, expected the recognition and accelerated development. Human society needed the new technologies, able to ensure for human the autonomy and regular supply of energy, information, food, living space, the possibilities to create and communicate.
The technologies of biological extraction for chemical compounds were basic and could be used for human needs satisfaction in food, energy, everyday and special substances. Genetically modified microorganisms and artificial catalysts were the instrument which ensured the destruction of some substances and the extraction (synthesis) of the other. Theoretically it was considered to be possible creation of stable closed-cycle biology systems which were able to realize long enough the hundreds technologies of chemical compounds synthesis and utilization. In the center of such biology system there would be the human - the master of such system. Practically it turned out to be that the level of current technologies for such biology systems creation was visibly insufficient, furthermore there was evident imperfection of the abstract concept knowledge about the structure and principles of living substance organization, that laid aside the practical realization of idea, which was in advance of time, for ten-twenty years. Human consciousness and views were always changing much more slowly than his technical possibilities, that's why need in autonomic independent living didn't become the society need as yet. The idea of autonomic independent living didn't yet become the motivation for scientific and technological progress, therefore the capital was insufficiently invested in development of this tendency. In the world, where the main factor, determining success for any undertaking, was expectation of the profit, the needs of society which had to be satisfied must be the mass needs. Only then cash assets will be generously invested in their engineering and development.
The third decade introduced many interesting and new for human everyday life. For example, there were emerged the domestic systems of three-dimensional computer visualization, which pressed three-dimensional television with flat screen, replaced it by arbitrary free space at any corner of the house. The same systems successfully replaced traditional computer displays, and were used in increasing frequency for the working purposes to solve tasks of any nature, including three-dimensional designing and projection. Besides this they were used as communication devices for work in Internet whose informative pages more and more were taking three-dimensional form. In time of leisure the computer visualization systems could create static and movable three-dimensional images, which became very soon a part of the human dwelling interior. The computer visualization systems created big holographic images which allowed to fill the whole room by varying three-dimensional images. Henceforth the architects and designers, dealing with dwelling ennobling, considered necessarily the possibility of three-dimensional images making in their creative work.
There were achieved the significant advances in study of human cerebration. The appliance of perfective hardware, including tomographs and scanners of new generation type as well as molecular robots, able to be in human blood-vascular system for along time, promoted this. Molecular robots were the miniature devices and didn't pose any serious hazard for the human health. With their help it was succeed in receiving the information from depths of human brain. The analysis of the received data about distribution of electrical and chemical potentials, changes of temperature, concentrations, pH in human brain in aggregate with available knowledge about structure of cerebral cells and tissues allowed to define more exactly and replenish current concepts about human cerebration. Scientists determined the dependence among changes of human brain physicochemical parameters and mentation. This knowledge promoted to practical guidelines elaboration for optimization and increasing of human mental work effectiveness. In particular on the base of received knowledge there were determined the optimal conditions by which the memorization of information was realized most efficiently, that was assumed as a basis of new memorization procedure. The researches of brain showed that different information types (logical, creative, emotional) needed the definite physicochemical parameters set of one or another brain parts for better memorization. Understanding of this allowed to design the series of medical preparations, providing favorable conditions for information memorization. At that to improve memorization of various information types (logical, creative, emotional) there were created different medical preparations. Thus the substances, improving and promoting the memorization, were created and put to the necessary testing before the mass appliance.
By examination of new medical preparations on volunteers there were realized experiments on express-insertion in human brain of behavior, mentation and sensation algorithms. As it turned out the information, which was perceived under medical preparations effect, was memorized much fuller, brighter and in more scopes. Positive results of experiments were assumed as a basis of accelerated skills training as well as improving of logical and creative mentation constituent of different people.
It was improving the procedure of information transfer from subconscious to conscious of the human, needed for operational organism control. In extreme cases it could be useful for every individual, and there were already a lot of illustrations. Many representatives of hazardous occupations, which were trained for conscious control over the main organism systems, could keep their own life thanks to the ability to use maximally the reserves of their organism. Appliance of molecular robots allowed to start engineering of technologies, orienting to operative modification of the physicochemical parameters for the definite human brain parts. The operative information about human brain parameters was used for human informing about threatening to his health states and tendencies, emerging by cerebration, as well as for recommendations about necessary corrections for perception and behavior.
For in-depth study of human cerebration there were created more and more perfective molecular robots. New models were equipped with various sensing devices and transducers, which were specially developed for operative control over different parameters of the human brain. Based on usage of ample quantity molecular sensing devices, transducers and various types analyzers, there was arisen in the face of society the technology of continuous monitoring for individual current psychological state. The priority application area for new developments, as expected, would be operative control over psychical state of the humans with ill mentality and criminals as well as control over specialists, working in important and extreme conditions. This technology could extend in the near future the human possibilities, for example, to enable the possibility to feel psychological state of literature and game personages or to communicate with allied people not by words but by means of emotional state. Such possibilities were simply invaluable for doctors, teachers, customer care personnel and representatives of many other specialties, who worked with people and for people. And even in everyday life it was useful and often just necessary for a certain person to feel occasionally at least true psychological state of the other person.
After first successful experiments on control over the human current psychological status there was arisen on the agenda the question about possible correction for cerebral processes which defined this status. Certainly this was a striking instance of intervention into human individual sphere, but there were cases of individuals asocial behavior and to extirpate such cases public opinion allowed the alternative of forced correction for cerebral processes. Such correction could be realized via creation of special states in one or another cerebrum parts. Such states were defined by presence or lack of some chemical compounds, electrical and electrochemical potentials value, certain chemical substances concentration. To act efficiently upon the human brain it was practical for the most part from within by means of molecular robots with technical possibilities for modification of chemical and physical parameters of the brain parts. The problem was that it was required to act simultaneously upon the different brain parts for creation (correction) of individual psychological status. Such integral effect was realized by dozens and hundreds of chemical compounds as well as physical fields and required appliance of complex molecular robots for efficiently implementation. Such molecular robots, able to effect for any brain part according to individual program, must be totally autonomous, include a great deal of analyzers, cavities with chemical compounds, several processors and systems of movement, orientation, communication. The emergence of such complex molecular robots was expected in one or two decades.
For the last time there was extended the range of practical appliance for "common space of virtual modeling" (CSVM). Space for virtual modeling, created primary for work with three-dimensional models of animals and plants cells as well as for computer designing of molecular chemical compounds with predetermined qualities and chemical technologies simulation, was extending the range of its own appliance from day to day. Creation of such universal instrument for researches turned out to be the perspective and timely step. During three incomplete decades of its existing the CSVM was replenished by hundreds of interdependent levels, reflecting various processes and phenomena, events and tendencies as three-dimensional computer models.
In it there were reflected the surgical operations experience, the designing technologies for protein molecules with predetermined qualities along with fortunes prediction for some individuals or meteorological forecasting. Year by year it was added by more and more new levels - scientific, social, economical and etc. Mankind entered an age of global computer simulation. Previous to starting of any important work by means of universal software in CSVM there were constructed development models of the investigated situation. All-powerful computers allowed to revise all theoretically existing variants, to cut off the dead-end and finally select optimal. Such approach reduced in dozens of times need in resources, time and cash assets, in comparison with traditional trial and error method. And even the new approach had covered for the present just ten percents of feasible application. Wide use of CSVM was mainly restrained by lack of computer capacities and colossal extent of knowledge, requiring the transfer into electronic form. In foreseeable future the situation, as expected, would change cardinally. The solution of all scientific and technical problems, simulation of political and social processes, creation of technologies, touching upon the deep substance bases, would be realized in CSVM. Computer logic and memory would help to avoid many errors, connected with the omission in accounting of all essential factors, effecting to the simulation processes.
If look at what was going in general, then in virtual space of computer modeling there was created non-substantial copy of the universe with all it laws, postulates and principles. The difference was in possibility of constant and interactive intervention of the human in processes, occurring in CSVM. In the virtual universe, originating step-by-step, the role of creator was predetermined to the human. There were held fairly active discussions about possible improving and optimization for the virtual universe. The most debatable questions were the theories about life creation in virtual space, about the spontaneous generation of Reason and the accelerated evolution of this Reason in CSVM. Earth civilization possibilities were becoming colossal. Generally speaking, the mankind hadn't moral right to use in full the available technical and technological possibilities because of its egoism and cruelty.
In increasing frequency the robotics was applied in upbringing and educative process of the younger generation. In developed countries the robots with intellectual inclinations were widely used for constant educational work with children, starting from the age of several months and finishing by children entering to the primary school. Robots-educators appliance considerably improved the educational process, gave to it the new quality. So it was that upbringing of the younger generation, being in many families the priority things, was in many respects the imperfect, intermittent and unsystematic process. The preoccupation of grown-ups with family material and financial security, the entertainment programs availability, designed for infant perception, the useless information redundancy worsened the educative process. Such obligatory requirements to educative process as individual attention, patience, regularity couldn't often be stood neither by parents nor, alas, by educators who dealt at once with several kids. To leave the actual situation without changes it was nothing else than forced restriction for the creative abilities of the younger generation. On the assumption of moral norms, this was at all the crime, inasmuch as insufficient and incorrect upbringing led to the domination of instincts, to the cultivation of unhealthy aggressive tendencies, to the underdevelopment of human person.
Two and a half of decades, passed from the beginning of the new century, showed the ability of the scientific-and-technological advance to accomplish the wonders, and simultaneously revealed disadvantages of civilization intellectual development. These disadvantages appeared in lack of moral and ethical principles of top level for the considerable part of population, in cultivation of consumer, egoistical and aggressive spirits by communication media. In a word, there was a satiation when it was impossible to let the questions about the younger generation upbringing run themselves, but quite the contrary they needed the mandatory and cardinal intervention.
The existent situation in the sphere of education promoted to creation and distribution of robots-educators which were able to explain the main principles of moral, humanism to children in the most proper and intelligible way.
That is to say that there was set a task for the robot-educators to do what parents from various countries of the world found difficult. Robot-educators with flexible behavior program were with child practically always. They could objectively appreciate any occurred or supposedly assumed situation, advice the child how to behave in this or that case, commend or reprove the child. On occasion they could give a positive example, softly remind of behavior norms, peculiar to well-bread, educated person. Surely all these activities were implementing by robots taking into account the individual characteristics of infant psyche. The main purpose of educational process was the formation of full-fledged intellectual personality, the assistance to child individuality development. Accumulated by robots-educators information transferred to common databank, where was processed by special programs, which kept up with conservation of mentality and peculiarities of thinking in each country, with correspondence of applying upbringing methods and their results to cultural and historical traditions of each country. It was very important to keep up the cultural peculiarities and singularity of existing people associations such as commonalty, habitation compact groups, nations and ethnic groups, professional groups and other. Already the first experience of robots usage for the younger generation upbringing showed the utility of their application.
The child's traumatism was decreased, the morbidity was diminished, the children's psyche got stronger, they became quieter, more joyful, more self-confident. Gigantic investments, comparable except for investments realizing into application area of genetic engineering, immediately flew into robotics. Prognosis of further robots usage for the younger generation upbringing and education was extremely favorable.