The second decade (2010-2020)
The blossom of comparative human genetics. The improvement of human being genetic information database. Study of forming mechanisms for human organism. Conception of cause-and-effect relations which determinate the genes' effect for form and vice versa. Completion in the main of single genes comparison and their groups and signs coding by them. Determination of space structure for the human being main important proteins by means of the innovative technologies. The difficulties by the comparison of genes' groups and protein molecules coding by them. Methods of determination of protein molecules space structure. Computer cytology. Study of sequences "protein - biochemical reaction". The first cells' computer models of human organism. Development of interactive computer model for non-specialized human being cell. Start of theoretical works on human organism optimization. The first optimized agricultural plants. The difficulties of moral order by the optimized animals creation. National programs on optimization of major agricultural plants and animals. New conception of human food. Treatment of majority hereditary diseases. Treatment of many cancer types. Wide use of medicines' group normalizing the genes' work. Immune complexes application for medical and prophylactic purposes. Perfection of computer model for human sample genome. Computer models of sample genomes for some animals. Search for biologically active substances which are able to interact with DNA of human. Insight into mechanisms of biologically active substance binding with DNA specific section. Means of special delivery for preparations of gene therapy. Prospects for application of gene regulation technologies for tissues' and organs growth out of human organism. Use of knowledge about gene regulation for military purposes. Industrial selective technologies on the basis of specific proteins. The useful components extraction out of water. Universal software development to bring together the existing scientific data bases. The manufacturing of supercomputers with power of one million teraflops. Perfection of computer visualization systems. Unitary standards for 3-D images creating and computer models. Breakthrough in understanding of memorizing and thinking processes in human brain. New information input methods into the human brain. Technologies for catalytic and absorption matrixes. Receiving of the first three-dimensional microcircuits by molecular assembly methods. Manufacturing of different materials with tailor-made properties. Receiving of new advanced ceramics kinds. The development of artificial photocatalysts for molecular hydrogen formation from water. Water decomposition into hydrogen and oxygen by the low-energy photons. Structural changes of world energetic raw material base. Difficulties with the use of hydrogen fuel. New technologies of hydrogen storage. The robots - household assistants and secretaries. Manufacturing of microrobots.
The second decade of twenty first century became the period of impetuous blossom for comparative human genetics. By this time the intellectual automatic systems were created and were constantly improving that allowed to decode genetic texts of human being genome with insignificant participation of experts. At the beginning of the decade the large collectives of genetics-analytics consisting of some hundreds members researched such studies. The interpretation of each new genome required the substantial money costs, the great number experts involvement, genetic material careful selection, and was inaccessible for overwhelming majority of planet population. With that there was the stable demand for own genetic texts interpretation on the part of rich people of planet wishing inquisitively or by perforce to get the detailed information about own genetic structure. The scientific value of such information was just below than received by scientists in planned researches by science programs execution. The cause of this was the restrictions of ethical, legal and financial character, imposed for obtained data at researches' customer request. For all that the received information substantively helped the development of comparative human genetics, promoting the findings of new generalizations, interrelations and correlations.
By the end of the decade the procedure of individual genome interpretation greatly reduced in price and became accessible for middle class.
This took place thanks to fully automatic systems appearance for genetic texts interpretation equipped with intellectual software. Human genome interpretation passed into category of usual medical procedures and researches. In many big cities of the planet on the base of the existent genetic research centers new service kinds began to be proposed, namely partial or full interpretation of the individual human genome. The reduction of prices for genetic researches led at once to several positive consequences. Firstly, the middle class became a mass consumer of new services, providing thereby the financing of more new lines in comparative human genetics. Secondly, the scientists received the constant flow of additional and inexpensive information. Thirdly, the quality of this information was wittingly high since people who engaged in interpretation of their own genome had either hereditary diseases or notable features both psychological and morphological. The necessity and belief in own exclusiveness – the categories so respected by person – became those factors which provided enough representative and interesting sampling of individual genetic texts from common mankind gene pool.
Successful application of technologies for individual genetic texts interpretation raised a question on the agenda about overall genetic passport system of human being. This idea which may be quite realized as early as the near future had both supporters and opponents. The main argument of the formers was trust in necessity to indicate the true course of life for human being on the assumption of his genetic prerequisites and features even compulsively. And to this effect it is necessary the free access to human being copious hereditary information. By their opinion the human being genome predetermined the individual life mode, choice of professional activity and interests and also choice of partner for family creation and acquiring with posterity. The opponents of overall genetic passport system spoke about the danger of human being discrimination by genetic features, about freedom in choosing for course of life, about total control over people and etc. As usual in such cases the disputes sometimes flared up, sometimes died out, but the wheel of progress continued to roll inexorably forward.
The reduction of prices for genetic researches led to that the scientists received bulk new information at their disposal. The incoming data promotes formation of sufficiently complete database for human being genetic texts. The assay of summary data, received on the basis of interpretation of several thousands individual genomes including the human embryos' genomes, allowed with pinpoint accuracy to compare the majority of genes and their groups with morphological characters of human being and functions of proteins generated in human being organism.
It was succeeded to determine the group of would-be "architectural genes", which are responsible for three-dimensional parameters of human being organism (appearance, dimension, quantity and layout of organs). The "architectural genes" realized the program laid in them on the stage of newborn organism forming from the fertilized cell, or put it otherwise regulated the embryogenesis. The main function of "architectural genes" is providing of correct space organization for growing organism. As far as all genes realize their "programs" by the protein molecule synthesis, so in parallel with determination of "architectural genes" group it was also determined the proteins which provide the space organization of developing human organism. With a view to extensive information systematization the flowcharts of general type "gene – protein - feature" were composed. Such flowcharts included the description of mechanisms for features realization and also the description of known interrelations between the genes, proteins and features. Thus it was defined the extended picture of processes which accompanied the growth and developing of human being organism in its whole complexity including the genes' subordinate scheme, time parameters of genes' work, interrelations of genes, proteins and features among themselves.
And though the complete picture creation of "architectural genes" functioning required the considerable expenses of time and intellectual titanic efforts, the main principles and mechanisms of their work were already understood. The "architectural genes» group numbered about six thousands genes which in their different combinations coded information about synthesis of several dozens proteins.
Also it was generally defined the group of genes responsible for metabolic processes both at cellular level and tissue level, of single organs and of the whole organism. Such genes defined by functional proteins, as a rule, singular biochemical reaction or simple sequence of biochemical reactions. The flowcharts for genes which defined the metabolic processes looked like "gene – protein – biochemical reaction". About thirty thousands flowcharts of such type were compiled, while for complete description of all considerable metabolic reactions of human being organism there needed to track about 200 thousands of biochemical reactions which were realized with assistant of hundred thousand proteins.
Study of this most extensive genes group was confronted with serious difficulties. Hundred thousands proteins which participated in metabolic reactions within different by their functionality cells and provided multifarious intracellular processes with great difficulty were amenable to researches. The main obstacles for researches were the paucity of protein molecules in a cell, transience of synthesis processes and protein degradation in living organism , the necessity to observe the molecules behavior directly in living cell. The small sizes of protein molecules which are under consideration and their permanent location among thousands of other molecules retarded the works by proteins identification and their comparison with biochemical reactions. Besides in a living cell one of protein molecules could be nature catalysts or inhibitors of those biochemical reactions in which they didn't participate. Qualities which the protein showed in a living cell too much differed from the qualities of the same protein determined in laboratory conditions. For these reasons there were many unexplored "blind-spots" by position "protein" and yet more by position "biochemical reaction" in flowcharts "gene – protein – biochemical reaction". It goes without saying that questions of proteins and biochemical reactions cooperation both among themselves and with one another remained absolutely unexplored.
The genes group with vague functions compared to ten-year remoteness learning curve greatly decreased. There were singled out the human genomes parts which were responsible for personally servicing of DNA molecule, including participating in processes of molecule unfolding and folding, serving as markers for ferments joining, acting as quantitative and time accounting of processes, servicing for DNA molecule. One more genes group carried the information, described fundamental principles for the whole genome functioning, and already registered in other genomes parts but coded by other nucleotides arrangement. So it was found out the reserve statement of fundamental principles for genome functioning, written by another symbols.
After genes main groups were singled out and their functions were identified there was still remained enough genes quantity in genome unrelated to any abovementioned groups. These were old sorted out under evolution genes, encoding obsolete features, biochemical reactions and just different commands and instructions. This compiled during millennia of evolution information was obsolete even at the present time was unclaimed, however the evolutionary processes didn't lead to it's annihilation, but on the contrary kept it in invariable form. And this was invaluable material for genes designing and human organism optimization.
It is worthy of note that existent difficulties during the protein molecule structure research were although great but surmountable. Technological achievements contributed to creation of up-to-date tools for determination of protein molecules space structure both in stall position and in process of their participation in biochemical reactions. The protein molecules features knowing and detailed atoms arrangement in them were overwhelmingly important for genetic, biology, pharmacology and many other sciences. Therefore any achievements in providing industrial fields, scientific and technical disciplines were immediately added to scientists' arsenal, if their usage allowed to accelerate the research of human genome.
Using the ultra-bright x-ray sources the scientists had success in receiving photograph extensive series and freezing cadre by cadre the developing of many biochemical reactions. This research method based on effect of X-ray dissimilar absorption by chemical elements with different atomic weight, on technical possibility of ultra-bright and extra-short X-ray impulses creation, on usage of supercomputers for calculations. To specify the received data it was applied in parallel the traditional method, based on analysis of information about X-rays scattering at protein molecule. In this case data about scattering intensity, scattering angles and about difference in phases of scattered rays was processed by computer.
At the same time it was begun the intensive usage of technologies in biochemistry and genetic, based on processes of neutrons scattering at protons. These technologies as if specially were created for biological subjects research which included a great number of hydrogen atoms. The neutron scattering technologies based on physical effect of good neutrons scattering at protons. The fact, that biological subjects (structural cell parts, protein molecules, DNA and other) were "supersaturated" with hydrogen, allowed by action on them by neutron beam to receive the distinct distribution patterns for hydrogen atoms in space. Accepted these distinctive markers as reference point, it was possible on a first approximation to construct a model of explored molecule or structural cell part. The following specification of explored subject construction carried out with the help of ultra-bright X-ray sources and also by computational methods. The technology of neutron scattering at protons made possible to study the architecture of protein molecules with big molecular mass, and even some intracellular structures.
There were not put aside the traditional study methods of structure and architecture of protein molecules, such as cryelectron microscopy, crystallography with atomic resolution, atomic magnetic resonance and other.
The application of well-known methods totality by scientists for organic compounds study under researches of protein molecules structure and features and implementation arrangements for biochemical reactions turned the tasks, set in program "Human protein", into the category of successfully solved. The accumulation of full data volume under this problem was only a matter of time. Started in last decade the global program "The human protein", wherein hundreds of scientific state and private companies participated, led to impressive practical results.
During realization of this program it was singled out the polypeptide structure of more than five hundred thousands of different human proteins. Modern software for computer simulation technique contributed to construction of established models for 3-D protein molecules structure, on the assumption of two dimensions polypeptide sequence. The situation was something alike situation which took place at the turn of the century when gigantic volumes of information accumulated by the first human genome decoding, which required the systematization, the reduction into single common model. And if for systematization of decoded human organism nucleotides sequences and for construction of single human genome model it was required more than ten years, then the systematization for knowledge of hundred thousands human organism proteins arrangement required more time. Program complexity "Human protein" was almost three stage higher than program of human genome decoding the execution of which seemed utmost only most recently.
The numerous achievements in different spheres of science and engineering helped to determine by the end of the century the polypeptide and space structure of about half million proteins, synthesized in human organism. However prior receipt of complete pattern for protein functioning in human organism there was still far. For this reason there were the quantitative order difficulties. About one hundred thousands genes there were in human genome, of which it was used no more a half under protein synthesis. At the same time about one million of different proteins there were permanently synthesized in human organism cells for providing of normal functioning. The plain truth was that for certain protein synthesis it was responsible not one gene but the whole group, which could include different genes quantity. In such a manner the pressing task was to compose the complete flowcharts "genes group – protein – biochemical reaction", wherefore it was necessary to determine the genes combination being responsible for protein molecules synthesis, the total quantity of which came near to a million.
At the same time million of different human organism proteins, every of which is able to come into chemical reactions with organic and inorganic compounds, that by quantities were in living cell, predetermined the astronomic quantities of potentially possible chemical reactions. Many of them really were carried out in functioning cells. To determine for sure just those chemical reactions which were functional for each protein molecule, and to cut off dozens thousands of other possible versions that were not important for human organism, it was supercomplex problem. It was necessary to solve this problem immediately, inasmuch as without these base knowledge it was impossible to determine the true pattern of human organism functioning at all levels, and thus move forward by the way of progress. Undoubtedly the protein as chemical agent class played the main part in this complex and multifold process of living human organism functioning. Only being in possession of full information about primary and space all proteins structure, which are a part of human organism, about their features, functional intendance, interrelations between each other and about interaction with other chemical agents, it was able to present the integral pattern of human arrangement as the receptacle of agreed chemical reactions astronomic number.
Full knowledge about human organism proteins was that factor which determined the movement tempo of earth civilization forward and time constraints of future, at present seemed to be fantastic, achievements. And thus astronomic numbers, characterizing the scale of necessary calculations, were not evidently on the side of scientists, the humanity, gathered into the fist the whole might of accumulated knowledge and skills, fell into resolving of the next tangle of problems. Perception of human protein mystery was multifold problem and required the parallel solving of some more time consuming tasks. One of them was the task of comparison of genes groups and coded by them proteins successfully solved, and it's realization waited in the near future. The next task, which lay in comparison of concrete proteins with concrete biochemical reactions, must answer the question about known protein molecules functions, required for it's solving additional efforts and time consumption.
Study of protein functions in human organism couldn't put aside the problem of protein molecules space folding. The essence of this problem lay in differences of protein molecule space structure at stage of its synthesis and during the main function realization in human organism. The protein molecule synthesis realized by creation of polypeptide sequence or linear protein structure. The process of folding may be realized multiply, and every time the protein molecule folding realizes by the same manner. By folding the protein activates, its central part forms the individual 3-D pattern, so-called active complex, which is individual catalyst, inhibitor or simply neutral participator of certain biochemical reaction. Twenty amino acids, of which all known for us natural proteins consist, in their own manifold combinations form millions of different protein molecules with their specific features and functions. However it is not easy matter to study and unambiguously understand all this variety, born by Nature.
To lighten the task of protein space structure determination and decreasing of necessary calculations quantity there were developed and successfully applied some elegant methods and approaches.
Protein space structure determination by its amino acid sequence (linear protein structure) was successfully realized on base of available information analysis about proteins space structure, possessing primary protein structure, similar to explored protein structure. Well studied proteins were taken as basis. Their known space structure was used as first approximation to the structure of explored protein, and then specified by the other methods. The mathematical model approach gave high quality prognostic for space protein molecule structure. This approach based on analysis for all interaction variants of separate atoms among themselves in a process of known primary protein structure folding in certain conditions. The postulate that the sought space structure must possess minimum of free energy. This approach required the supercomputers usage with power of one thousand Teraflop and more. Practically there were used the mathematical models with predetermined approximation to the true space structure of protein molecule.
The original approach, simplified the task of comparison for functional parts "protein – biochemical reaction", was simulation approach for two and more coned protein molecules, based on their detailed active complexes interaction. This approach was used in computer simulation technique by study of protein molecules interaction among themselves, and also with different chemical agents. The separation in each protein molecule of active complex, participated in chemical reactions, allowed to consider about 10% from the whole atoms quantity of this protein molecule under mathematical model approach, that decreased thousandfold the volume of necessary calculations and shorten the time of supercomputers usage.
On numerous occasions nature itself helped the scientists, prompting more easier ways of solving for set tasks. Often for genes group comparison and for coded by them protein molecules, and also for proteins and biochemical reactions comparison, it wasn't necessary to conduct complex researches and calculations, using genetic and cytological material of human being. It was required only to refer to knowledge, received by genome decoding and proteins study for microorganisms, fungus, yeasts and plants. Considering that all life forms on our planet use single genetic and amino acid code, and the fact that Nature for all variety of its creations duplicate the best evolutionary findings in many organisms species, the scientists could receive many answers, in which they are interested in, by study of animalcular organisms.
As a rule the animalcular organisms genome included less genes then human genome. The quantity of synthesized proteins and biochemical reactions, peculiar to these organisms also were less, then in human organism, that considerably lightened the scientific researches. The living beings variety on Earth and their impressive adaptability to different living environment gave good chances to find the majority of specialized proteins and key biochemical reactions in more simple terrestrial life forms. A case in point is well-known fact that human organism ferments, performing enough specialized functions, may be found in many microorganisms, where it is more easier to study their features then in human organism. Certainly the full conformity took place by no means always, thus the research results applied to human proteins considering the specificity of more complex metabolism peculiar to human being.
All-round study of cause-and-effect relations such as "protein – biochemical reaction" led, among other issues, to fundamental research of biochemical reactions, and also their sequences, these most important components of life support processes in a living cell. The incessant process of biochemical reactions individual total is the purpose and main function of any living cell. Theoretically, knowing any specialized cell intendance, countdown it is possible to identify the biochemical reactions chain, composed the cell function. Certainly, it is impossible to effect from the ground up, be out of theoretical fundamental base. But by the taken time period the humanity already possessed knowledge about living cell composition, its functioning mechanisms, its structure, its compound and qualities of cell components. As shatters of mosaic more new and new knowledge, made by different scientific disciplines, filled up the blind-spots on general map of cell structure and functioning.
By this time there were already some computer models of a living cell, which were developed both under state programs and thank to private initiative. Some of them were placed at servers for free usage, to other only the developers had access. The cell computer models of human organism were developed for different needs, often by specific orders and characterized the dozens of specialized cells, that was a significant forward step of natural sciences. All computer models were incomplete, however, their and authenticity were enough to solve many problems of pharmacology, biochemistry, genetics. For many tasks, arising before scientists, there was not in the least necessarily to model all cell elements or to model them with high detailed elaboration degree. The best of existing models had high detailed elaboration degree for separate cell components at the level of atoms, for majority of protein molecules at the level of active complexes, and considerable part of secondary constituents was described as parameters set. Besides this many cell components were not explored at all or was not yet known. In spite of lack for full knowledge, the science was on creation of computer model for non-specialized human cell as obligate development of available experience.
The complete model of non-specialized human cell must join all available computer models of different cells, and also plural models of proteins and other cell components. The international group of scientists, joint the best professionals of national and private companies, began to realize this complex work. The complete living cell model initially was developed with the expectation of free access to it and possibility of interactive work. Each of experts, independently of home country, had the possibility to replenish this model of his own important information and soon see it specified on the base of this information. High complexity degree of living cell required the permanent extra-high-power computers application for cell model construction and specification. On the planet there were bulk of such computers. Furthermore any establishments, organizations and simple users at any time could involve free computer resources by means of global network for living cell model perfection. The corresponding active relation to panhuman problems solving was greeted and encouraged by public opinion. In such a manner all those who wish participated in creation of human cell computer creation without any prohibitions and limits. The total capacity of constantly switched on computers was in average about one thousand Teraflops, which in principle there was enough to specify the living cell interactive model in real-time mode, in mode of new knowledge receipt.
Even the first by far not a perfective variant of available to all computer model increased practically at once the effectiveness of current scientific researches and developments. The experts of dozens professions, who had bright intellect and new theories, but had no enough cash assets for their own researches, received the equal odds for their developments realization.
Some simplified models, which were designed for solving of more narrow tasks, gemmated from the computer model base variant of non-specialized human cell at the end of decade. The biochemists, for example, worked with model which represented the living cell as interconnected chemical reactions complete. The cytology received the model where cell was represented as subject with stable repeating functions, the performing of which were preset by cell components. The geneticists were interested in mechanism of genes including (activation) in cell vital functions process, they considered the living cell model in the context of priority for genes programs development.
The living cell experiments were always connected with formidable difficulties and inconveniences, and often were so much ineffective. Strong interrelations between cell components and biochemical reactions, which it was needed to determine in the course of experiments, on numerous occasions were lost among multitude of different interrelations between cell components, chemical compounds and chemical reactions products, resided in a cell. The human being was unable to analyze effectively the ample quantity of experimental data and marked out the most important among them, that's why attached to the work with information at stage of regularities and tendencies generalization and analysis. The computer, not at once lost never a whit of information, considered any very insignificant data by computer model development and was irreplaceable at the stage of experimental material accounting and primary processing.
The task of complete computer model development for human living cell was the most difficult among tasks, which there was necessary for humanity to solve during the whole history of scientific researches. The perfect knowledge (truth) about principles and mechanisms for human living cell functioning and organization gave for humanity the real instruments for the universe rearrangement. The complete computer model of human organism cell includes a huge evolution potential and predetermined the prospects for computer model development of higher order – the level of functioning tissues, organs and organism in the whole. The understanding of cell model evolution laws gave the possibility to work off preventively not for a while yet theoretical conception about optimization, human living cell improving, and in especial cases to design the elements for tissues optimization of functional systems and the organism in the whole.
Already the first results of metabolic reactions study for intracellular metabolism products led the researchers to conclusions about bad compatibility of coterminous in a cell substances and reactions, that made worse cell functioning in process of it's vital functions. That's why the questions of optimization for metabolic reactions and designing of improved functional intracellular components promised to become extremely in current importance in the near future.
The beginning of the decade was marked by considerable growth of applied researches by crops optimization, were being important for man. The "computer selections' " approaches, based on complete information about agricultural plants genetic texts made possible to create computer optimized genomes with high degree of accuracy. The examination of designed computer genomes occasionally at practice took more time then the processes of their optimization and designing. The terms of plant cultivation were altogether some months, and this allowed to eliminate very quickly the incorrect perilous variants and to concentrate efforts on perspective models. Even the first practical results were stunning. Twofold increase of crop yield, received due to plants genome improving by the natural genes of closely related plants by means of gene engineering approaches, became real revolution in agriculture. If add hereto such qualities of optimized plants as steadiness to negative weather factors and to agricultural pests, and also self-sustainability in mineral fertilizers supply, then become apparent, that initiate processes may lead in the near future to serious social consequences across the globe. One of these consequences, as thought, may be the economical specialization and fully formed economy structure change of many third world countries, the plant products exporters.
By the end of decade new optimized plants varieties, which have unique features, fell down as from cornucopia. The plants as experimental subject proved to be the auspicious material for realization of the very audacious intentions of scientists. The "computer selection" process for new varieties took one-two weeks of work in simple cases, and it was required some months in complex cases. The optimized genome assembly for experimental plant in laboratory environment took approximately the same time. The growing of new variety on the soil took about some months. In any case it was taken not more a year from the moment of computer model creation for optimized genome till the moment of the obtained living plants examination in accordance with planned features.
Dozen thousands experts, worked in plant optimizing industry, during a year of work could deliver the dozen thousands of new varieties to the world market of all known agricultural plants. So imposing steam of new plants varieties brought considerable uncertainty in the future of agricultural business, threatened with being without job for millions of agricultural manufactures. There was a real risk for optimized inherited material ingress into biosphere and its further fortuitous invasion into genomes of those plants and organisms, which were not assumed to be subject for any improvement. Just such anxiety became the main limiting factor for mass implementation of optimized plants. Just therefore each new variety was exposed to prolonged and careful researches. In the general case there was the situation when the science could cardinally change the plant cultivation in agriculture, but had to restrain its possibilities because of reasonable apprehensions concerning the uncontrolled of optimized genetic material spread.
Such problems appeared also in such spheres where there were used the optimized by natural genes yeasts, fungi, microorganisms. At first instance it was concerned the process, food and pharmaceutical branches of industry.
Simultaneously with improving process of already known agricultural plants in scientific establishments of many countries, there was implemented the process of designing by means of "computer selection" technologies not any more new useful plants but new species of plants, possessed of useful numerous features. These works predetermined soon serious changes in world agricultural industry. The designing of new plants species was a lot more difficult work, then the creation of new varieties because of it required mutual coordination for genetic texts fragments of different earth flora species. For usability there were developed general flowcharts "genes group (gene) - feature" for all explored plants. Dozen thousands of flowcharts were reduced to a unitary standards all information, being received by different sciences. To create the new plants species with prescribed features it was required to select the genes groups, responsible for these features, and to coordinate them inter se as well as with inherited material of base plant. The apparent simplicity of designing principle for new species practically turned into the most complicated problem for genetic engineering, cytology and programming, as however any innovative work, inasmuch as required the account of thousands earlier unknown interrelations and factors.
Different floras on our planet and million years of natural selection led to that plants occupied the ecological existence niches in wide range of temperature, humidity, illumination and chemical agents concentrations. That's why it was quite really the creation of new plants species in the near future, which could to fructify and be in progress in any climatic region of the Earth, excluding may be Antarctica and Far North.
The problem-solving process, related to animal genome optimization, developed enough interesting. If at the beginning of the century it was seemed that the main purpose of animals genome optimization was the human want satisfaction in food, clothes, medicaments, then later just a decade the problem became to look otherwise. Farm animals turning into single-purpose biological machines for manufacturing of food stuff and pharmaceuticals, which was technologically feasible and real, was lay over without day.
At bottom of this decision it was put the ethical and practical considerations. The genetics fantastic possibilities came in collision with ethics and moral of human society. Protected by healthy conservatism the mankind moral values determined the weighted and careful attitude to the revolutionary changes in any human life activity sphere. The intervention in genotype of animals, especially mammals, touched upon the fully formed system of moral values, devaluated in the eyes of community the human being himself. Moreover the considerable part of Earth population regarded the human being as the work of God.
In addition there was a known hazard of optimized hereditary material ingress into genotypes of other animals kinds with possible negative consequences. Some more annoying part of experimentations with animals was the necessity to do away with numerous failed samples, many of which could be successfully used in horror films. The numerous arguments, called for caution, formed the public opinion, which was expressed in old Russian proverb "Measure thrice and cut once".
Simultaneously the new conception arose, which in the near term could lead to problem solving for optimization of animals genome for human being wants satisfaction without prejudice to traditional moral and ethics. It was consisted in food staffs perfection. The final cause, according to new conception, was taken to be the receiving of new, had been no earlier, food stuffs, on the ground of optimized and artificial plants and microorganisms. There was set a problem before scientists to replace animal food (first of all, certainly, the meat) for plant products. At the same time it was automatically interposed a veto for new product type degradation. Such conception provided a powerful impetus for sciences, concerned with plants study. Some of maritime states had created national research programs, oriented to study and optimization of sea organisms, including fish. The optimization experiments for fish genome turned out to be that compromise between the possibilities of science and engineering, on the one hand, and moral and ethics requirements on the other. The financial capital and scientific potential, temporarily had laid aside the questions of farm livestock optimization, switched to financing and execution of study for sea organisms genetic material.
In the whole the further problem solving of human society nutrition from the position of new conception was seen through the genome optimization and improving of human organism itself, at first by natural genes and then by artificial. The human being, having an optimized genome, as it was seemed, will be satisfied with less food volume and use food with higher performance index. Later on it was presumed that categories food and energy will more and more grow apart.
The contemporary human being needs in more protein quantity for his organism construction and upkeep. The energy demands of human being organism traditionally are covered by means of fats and carbohydrates. The nutrition for the improving human being of the future will be turned to the same wants satisfaction, in other words for upkeep of his own body structure under up state and for energy receiving to ensure the metabolism. At that necessary energy may be received thanks to processing of new energy agents, new energy food stuffs, and it is possible that supply of protein will be replaced by supply of amino acids, which will be in unconjugated form in such food stuffs.
The practical application of knowledge about implementation arrangements for hereditary information promoted the solution of many medicine problems. By the end of the second decade it became possible by new medicines of individual and narrow directional effect to cure the majority of known hereditary diseases directly in human organism. There were not produced the medicine preparations for some hereditary diseases because of these diseases rare manifestations. In many cases economics had the last word, inasmuch as costs for researches and development of new medicines didn't lead to the following payback of expired costs because of sluggish demand for these medicines.
In the past decades there was obtained the extensive experience of practical correction for defective genes directly in human organism cells. The first experiments often finished by rejection of new preparations, used for correction and cure of defective genes. However later the "genes normalizers", created taking into account the individual particular qualities of patient, and also knowing of implementation arrangements for negative features led to that the cure of hereditary diseases became the usual and ordinary cause in medicine practice. The same time was marked by successful work performance on defective genes normalization directly in human sex genes. Similar works could be performed well in advance, however it wasn't happened because of intervention in process of new life beginnings was discommended by leading world religions, public opinion, and in many countries was just under the legislative ban. And though technical aspect of such invention was well-proved, the cases of application were not numerous and were limited by moral and ethics norms. In that case, as in case with optimization of animals genome, the science put foot at territory, traditionally belonged to God, and each new step forward had to do weighted and cautiously.
The last years of the decade were marked by successes in solution of the most serious mankind problem – the problem of cancer. Step by step the scientists came near to clear and final victory over this disease. And they obtained wishful result. The majority of cancer type became completely cure. Maximal usage of patient own immune resources became the base approach for this disease treatment. After determination of genie distortion type in cancer cell there was effected the analyze of received individual information, following the results of which there were worked out the guidelines by treatment strategy. The following treatment was complex, the choice of optimal approach was carried out by the doctor in community with medical computer.
One of treatment principles for cancerous diseases was normalization of genes work, which were beyond control of organism. The technologies of genes normalization were well-proved under treatment of hereditary diseases and practically demonstrated their effectiveness. There was the similarity between the genie distortions mechanisms by cancer diseases and hereditary diseases. Common to them was the distortion of structure or integrity of certain DNA sections. The complicated factors under cancer diseases were the aggression of degenerated cells, that became apparent in their unrestrained fission, and also sick cells locomotion with biological fluids flows through the whole organism, that made unpredictable the place where the metastases would appear. That's why the technologies of genes normalization the most successfully were applied at early stages of disease, when the quantity of sick cells, where it was necessary to correct the defective genes, was dozens thousands.
The integrated approaches of action on degenerated cells were used in more complex and neglected cases, when only "genes normalizers" application was inefficient because of numerous quantity of cancerous cells. First of all the immune system of the patient had to work at capacity by means of special activating preparations. This step in any case increased the body resistant and gave needed time allowance. Parallel to this the definition of own organism antibodies, specific to antigens of cancerous cell, was in the process. Then the medical professions, based on the analyze of discovered protein molecules, selected the producers of monoclonal antibodies, the most suitable for the certain case. At the same time it was used the card-catalogue of existing hybrid cells, producing the antibodies of the same type for specific tumor cells. By undertime these artificial factories of monoclonal antibodies effected the synthesis of specific for this tumor antibodies out of the human organism in great numbers.
Produced in great numbers the antibodies were used later as markers, by which the tumor cells were marked for the following effect of the patient own immune resources to them, and also for structuring of different immune complexes. The immune complexes were integrated biological compounds which performed functions of finding and destruction for degenerated cells directly in human organism. They consisted of specific antibodies, which were responsible for the selective joining to cancerous cells, and chemical compounds, destructive for these cells, in the quality of which different toxins and poisons acted. In the process of treatment the cancerous cells were found and destructed through the whole human organism, and excess of immune complexes in human organism after treatment completion prevented the possibility of relapses. All cancerous cells were subject to destruction independently from their location, were they in the tissues of organism or in biological fluids. The usage of specific monoclonal antibodies allowed to obtain high efficiency and selectivity under finding and joining to the cell targets.
Complex, combined and rare cases of cancer diseases required the individual treatment approach. As a rule for this by the genie engineering methods there were created the individual antibodies, which could get into touch with rare cancerous cell forms. Often such antibodies could join to several cancerous cells types, that is to say they were the universal remedy. By the end of the century the treatment for majority of cancerous forms became the reality, however each certain case required the individual factors consideration. In some cases the value of cure was extremely high, but means, as a rule, were found, inasmuch as any progression enriched the medicine by new knowledge and allowed to solve the following problems more effectively and quicker.
The immune complexes, which were able to effect selectively to cells-targets, became the most popular pharmaceuticals in the world. The whole industry, born across the pharmacology and genetics, supplied without fail to the world market thousands varieties of monoclonal antibodies and thousands varieties of capsules, filled with medicinal substances, in the quality of which the well-known liposomes were used. The immune complexes designing under disease treatment were carried out considering the certain organism individual characteristics. By undertime there were designed and tested several hundreds of immune complexes for universal purpose, which were used both for diseases treatment and for their prophylaxis, and also for cosmetic purposes. All-service immune complexes carried out the purposeful supply of medicinal and biological active compounds for cells targets. Filled with medicinal agents liposomes joined to membrane of cells, which had the phospholipids structure, whereupon the liposome's contents released and partly got into the cell and partly remained at it's surface. Both processes were equally useful for normalization of the cell activity. The selection of the ratio between the quantity of medicine preparation, passed through the cell membrane and remained at the cell surface, determined by the dimensions of liposome itself. Thus the liposomes of small sizes carried out the supply of their contents directly into the cell and carried inter se the preparations of intracellular effect. The liposomes of more large dimensions supplied the agents, contained in them, to the surface of cell's membranes, effecting to the tissues and organs, and mostly applied for cosmetic purposes. The prophylactic purposes took the considerable part of world immune complexes consumption. Those knowledge about cell functioning, which were already received by science, allowed to give successful recommendations regarding to the needs of these or those cells and tissues in certain agents considering the age, sex, season and other factors. Planned usage of immune complexes allowed to satisfy the requirements of human organism in full measure often preventively.
The computer model of sample human genome became more complete and perfect for the last years. Several thousands individual genomes decoding for representatives of various races, nationalities, ages and etc. gave needed quality material, which promoted for sample human genome exposition as computer model available to all. And though functions realization mechanisms of many genes were not clarified yet, nevertheless it was defined that the majority of such genes were responsible for metabolism processes or in other words for realization of intracellular reactions. Such reactions were the same for all representatives of Homo Sapiens species with the rarest exception, the search of which was interesting and promising trend in genetics. The reasonable simplification of sample human genome model, based on admission, that genes responsible for metabolism processes in organism of any human are the same for all people, allowed to create the quite established model of sample genome. This model had some architectonic tendency and showed for sure the ways of human morphological features realization, represented by schemes "gene (genes group) – protein - feature ". The advent of such model made possible to give for genetics the demonstrativeness and staginess. If add to this the possibility of interactive work with computer model in real time mode, then it was difficult to underestimate how serious instrument the scientists kept in hands. Also the invent of such instrument gave a lot as for attraction of financial resources and talented people to genetics and allied sciences. Millions of interested people, not specialists, received the access to interactive model of human sample genome or, rather, to it's playing version available to all. Now any one who wishes can bate his curiosity and experiment with human genes. Many people, combining from architecture genes pattern, designed bodies, faces and organisms for their virtual posterity, realizing their own preferences, at user layer. There was arisen a splash of interest on the part of community to human organism arrangement and possibilities for human improving by means of sample genes application. For a while the most popular pastime among grown-ups and children became computer games with generalize name "Construct the human".
And specialists worked with computer model of sample human genome scrupulously and enthusiastically. They hourly specified the numerous interrelations of "gene – protein - feature" type, which were assumed as a basis of computer model. However there was not of less importance to reflect reliably in the model those complete interrelations between genes, proteins and features, which were in a latent, implicit form. Inasmuch as there were the astronomical quantity of such interrelations and quantity of scientists, worked in this field of science, was dozens of millions, so the entry of new useful data and improving of human sample genome were continuous. The potential variety of morphological features and model complexity increased with growth of reflected interrelations in computer model. The perfect model must consider not only the interrelations within genome, but the influence on processes of realization for hereditary information, chemical compounds concentrations, temperature, illumination, value of electric and magnetic fields and etc.
The advent of the first computer models for some remarkable animals, mainly insects and thalassophiluses, dated approximately by this time.
The advent of the first computer models for some remarkable animals, mainly insects and thalassophiluses, dated approximately by this time.
Decoding of their genomes began long ago and was aimed mainly at receiving information about special functions and features which could be used in humans' interests. Work with already existing genome models of some animals and possibility of quick models specification have led to accumulation of true information about function realization of many genomes and their groups. That information was enough for creation of sample genomes models for examined animals. A genes combination led to the best realization of eminent feature or function in such models was taken as a standard one. In such a way the genome of some insects showing resistibility to radiation conditions was researched with purpose to understand the mechanisms of intracellular "repair" and tissues regeneration. Besides the genomes of some sea organisms living comfortable by frosty ambient temperatures, also in conditions of higher temperature and high pressure, were decoded. The aim of such researches was to define the metabolic reactions set allowing the artificial organism to function under extreme conditions fatal for the most earth organisms.
Such researches were very important for evaluation of life-support mechanisms of the human body which were programmed in the human genome and revealed through stable metabolic reactions. There was no big variety of realization mechanisms for the same features (functions) of different organisms as well as the variety of genes combinations coding these mechanisms, in the earth biosphere. Evolution has stopped on sufficiency of one or another mechanism of feature realization for each organism in conformity with its living area, not developing them more than necessary. The more aggressive and hostile the nature surrounding of any biological kind was, the more specialized functions it was to perform for the purpose of survival and higher were the requirements to realization mechanisms of the required features, and, as a result, the level of feature sufficiency was higher.
Realizing the specialized evolutionary developments of the Nature allowed the scientists to compare the realization mechanisms of features (functions) in different biological kinds and in the human and to receive the most valuable material for future perfection of the human genome. From the point of view of the most part of the earth population, expansion of humans' possibilities by means of using the evolutionary developments of the Nature was possible. In the process of further investigation of earth organisms the best realization mechanisms of features (functions) which could be successfully used for designing more perfective organism, than the existing human organism, were accurately studied and selected.
Detailed studying of chemical properties of the human DNA molecules was proceeding. The thing interested in by the scientists was the point about interaction of DNA and biologically active substances (ferments, poisons, hormones, etc.) both zoogenic and phytogenic. The aim of the scientists was to make a card-catalogue of chemical compounds of election reaction able to join to the definite areas of "life molecular". Some medical products influencing the human body on the intracellular level were borrowed from the folk medicine experience of different countries of the world. Only some hundreds biologically active substances of such effect used in folk medicine during hundreds and thousands years were selected out of tens of thousands ones. The selection was carried out according to the criteria of stable interaction of biologically active substances and the human DNA definitely in functioning cell of the human body. Further studying of selected zoogenic biologically active substances was following the way of biochemical reactions modeling and their interaction with the DNA and also by understanding the mechanisms of compounding these substances with the definite areas of "life molecular".
Researches carried out for two decades were resulted in systematization of biologically active substances by the criteria of the definite point of joining the compound to the DNA. From the variety of medical products of folk medicine the substances able to selectively connect with the definite genes, were taken out. Received knowledge began to be used for development of means for purposive delivery of medical products in gene therapy.
A little bit later with the help of technology of computer modeling the active molecules centers, responsible for selective interaction with DNA, were distinguished from the molecules of selected substances. Such active centers were used when making remedies of purposeful delivery of gene's therapy products to the defective genome's areas. Remedies of purposeful delivery of gene's therapy products were complicated protein-liposome complexes close by their structure to immune complexes widely applicable in pharmacy and cosmetology. The difference between the remedies of purposeful delivery of gene's therapy products and immune complexes was deeper interaction level on organic matter. This difference indicated higher complexity of protein-liposome complexes structuring. Joining of such complex to the functioning cell was actualized on the basis of two proteins interaction, which were correspondently the "key" and the "lock", where the "lock" was a space protein "ornament" of outside surface of cell membrane, and the "key" was a synthesized, outside the human body, specific antibody to this protein structure. Such an approach guaranteed delivery of the capsule with remedies of gene's therapy to the definite cell. After capsule penetration inside the cell, its content released and the second stage of the complex activated, which was the cluster of active centre and own remedy of the gene's therapy. Joining point of the active centre to DNA molecule was set by active centre formula, which structure determined the diameter of defective genome area on which the gene's therapy remedy influences.
Different combinations of active centers and remedies of gene's therapy made possible to cover the space genome areas with effective normalizing influence. Possibility of selective influencing on definite single gene, not involving by this the functions of surrounding genes, allowed to influence actively or depressingly on defective genome areas, consisting of one or several genes. In its turn, this fact opened the perspectives for normalization and improvement of genes directly in cells of functioning human organism during all his life. In point of fact, a new class of medicines theoretically able to influence simultaneously on all cells of the human body, was conceived. In practice, it meant the possibility of emergency restoration or depressing of functions of genes or their groups, required the normalizing effect in short terms. The close consequences of development of such technologies could be rejuvenation of the human body, increasing active life duration, individual cells, tissues and organs improvement. More distant consequences of born technologies were practice of simultaneous influencing on unlimited number of cells, making tissue or organ of the human body, and controlled cultivation of new human organs and tissues directly in functioning organism.
It worth noting, that in many medical centers of the world during the last twenty years, some human tissues and organs were artificially cultivated and this process was successful enough. The existing technologies of cultivation the human organs and tissues outside the organism were very complicated mainly because they required strictly regulated by the physics-chemical parameters medium, consisting of hundreds of ingredients. Unfortunately, in such technologies the mechanisms of genetic accompanying and control of development the own organs and tissues because of insufficiency of knowledge about the performance of these mechanisms, were not used. Lack of knowledge demanded the working out of mechanisms for forced effecting, duplicating the program of genetic accompanying and control, presenting in each alive organism. Program of genetic accompanying and control regulate cells performance of definite for this place functions and development levels, chosen from the numerous possible variants. Mutual coordination of cells groups at development levels is the necessary condition at any processes of growing and development of cells, tissues, organs and the whole body. Absence of mutual coordination by any processes of growing unavoidable lead to uncontrolled tissue growing and, as a result, to mutual depressing of useful performed functions from the point of view of the whole organ or organism.
Traditionally for forming the volume structure of outside the human body growing tissues and organs the mechanic restrictions and also the limitation of nutrients, needed for cells growing, were used.
New possibilities for step-by-step regulation of processes for cells growing and development have appeared. For correction of cells growing processes the remedies of gene's therapy, containing chemical compounds of selective effect activating or deactivating simultaneously genes and their groups in big number of cells, were begun to apply for the first time. In such a way, a controlled step-by-step fulfillment of the stated program of growing and cellular tissue or the whole organ was performed. Cultivation of artificial organs out of the human body was a good ground on which the technologies of stepwise regulation of the processes of growing and development for the biological matter by remedies of gene's therapy were developed.
Knowledge received as a result of mutual work of scientists and enthusiasts from many countries of the world was impudently used in military laboratories for perfecting the genetic weapons. Elaboration of "genetic bullets" was a back side of perfection process of gene's therapy products. It was always easier to disable and destroyed the human body than to create and bring it through. The developed genetic weapon opened the perspectives for domination on the whole Earth, besides it cost less than development of perfected products of genetic regulation for medical purposes. Because of this, work at elaboration of genetic weapons was permanently carried out in military offices using the best facilities not saving money on this, in tens of world countries. Besides the number of existing ways of making the human being dead, added tens of new, insidious and choice ones. Genetic weapon, able to influence the different levels of biological matter organization and also to disable the cells, tissues and human organs and to destroy any animal and vegetable organisms, became a reality. Its application was impeded and even prohibited by existing conventions, international agreements and contracts, which also concerned the other kinds of massive weapons. But risk of world catastrophe, as a consequence of this fact of such weapon existing, has multiple increased. Free movement of gene's therapy products plus professional knowledge of unconscionable scientists could give birth to makeshift means of genetic humiliation and extermination of human being. At the end of the decade the first cases of acts of terrorism using the "genetic bullets" and other kinds of genetic weapons were stated. Special services of the leading countries of the world and power transnational companies could use individually developed "genetic poisons" able to kill selectively the definite person, turn him to disable person or a mad one.
The cases of ruffian appliance of self-made chemical compounds, negatively influenced on genes of the human body, became more frequent. Primarily not being aiming at people killing that phenomenon was just the same that creation of computer viruses, synthesis of makeshift explosive devices, etc., but application of such chemical compounds led to people death more frequently. Access to up-to-date knowledge and technologies together with peculiarities of human psychics and in accordance with theory of chances postulates gave birth to horrible technological chimeras which were death dangerous for mankind, but satisfying the complacent ambitions of unrecognized "genies".
Practice of preventive cultivation of the most important organs and tissues in case of their damaging in extreme situations, became ordinary for top-echelon representatives and also for not big special offices, performing special missions, by which the risk of death damaging of the organism was very high. Considerable expenses for such purposes could allow only the economically developed and reach countries or international organizations, in particular such an approach was realized by United Nations for protection from acts of terrorism the statesmen and also the soldiers by providing the peacemaking missions.
The industrial selective technologies based on application of specific protein molecules (antibodies) gained wide expansion in the whole world. In such technologies selectivity principle, specific to complicated biological objects which determined selective immune response of the organism by penetration in it foreign substance, was effectively used. Antibodies produced by the organism for joining definite chemical compound, in theory could joint selectively the molecules of any substances and to do this the more effectively, the more complicated structure those substances had.
In practice, for creation of specific antibodies first a computer model of interaction this chemical compound and the models of protein molecules from existing database was developed for definite chemical compound. After preliminary variant choosing, some fitted molecular-applicants for antibody role were chosen after which it was a stage of chemical structure optimization of these protein molecules. The fact that all computative and analytical processes were carried out on the computer models but not on material objects, should not be forgotten. Power computer accompaniment made it possible to work with tens millions of variants of possible structuring for protein molecular and to choose the most optimal of them though all that process required very much time.
Works of creation the specific antibodies to different chemical compounds definitely functioning in animal or human body were parallel carrying out. By this the natural programs of creation the specific antibodies, created and developed in the process of evolution, were involved. The received results surely were reflected in the form of computer model and were accurately analyzed and detailed.
Both stated ways supplemented each other which promoted receiving quick and qualitative results. After the sought-for structural formula of protein molecule was defined, the gene engineers came to the matter with their specific methods. The ultimate purpose of their work was creation of nucleotides sequence coding the synthesis of given protein or, in another words, genes' groups able to produce the needed protein. Optimization of initial genes' group by methods of gene's engineering allowed gaining the desired results and ultimately synthesizing this protein molecule, which structure was defined in the process of computer modeling, as being the most optimal. Hereinafter mass quantity of specific protein molecules were produced by means of synthesis of protein in cells cultures.
Selective technologies were applied firstly for extraction of rare or expensive chemical compounds out of solutions of small concentration and polluted solutions of different origin. In medical sphere and pharmacy they were applied for the purpose of qualitative purification of biological solutions both in laboratory conditions and being a part of alive organisms that was a perspective innovation. One more sphere of appliance was extraction out of natural and artificial solutions of considerable quantities of chemical compounds of mass application.
Cost price for extraction of big quantities of useful substances, specific durable proteins able to regenerate their properties, were constructed. As a rule, the protein molecules were chemically mounted to inert ceramic substrate, performing constructional and protective functions.
Attention was paid by the scientists to studying the evolutionary developments of the Nature. In such a way, studying sea organisms, concentrated in themselves the separate chemical elements and compounds, made possible to decode the structure of some proteins selectively joint with these or those components, dissolved in sea water. Optimization of computer models and construction of optimal consequences of nucleotides has led to producing the artificial microorganisms, producing industrial quantities of protein molecules able to join selectively some useful components from water solutions. The first candidates to being extracted from sea water were noble and rare-earth metals. Possibility of production of radioactive elements out of natural and technological water solutions for using them in energetic and military installations was of interest. This task could hardly be realized in practice. High radioactivity reduced the effectiveness of functioning the protein molecules and led to their quick destruction owing to intense radiochemical effect on atoms of compounding elements. Application of protein molecules for enrichment and concentration of radioactive elements required producing additional repair and life-support systems of these protein molecules.
Performing of new additional functions required transition on the next level of complexity, namely the level of the simplest organism which combined in itself the technological and supporting its own existence activities.
It seemed that with the help of selective technologies it would become possible to extract from not aggressive solutions of any substances, soon. But still such alluring result would be the business of tomorrow. Reality of today was constructing protein molecules with set properties for which the scientific technological preconditions existed. Difficulties began at interdependence of nucleotides consequences which coded the synthesis of complicated protein molecules because of insufficiency of data about interactions of "gene - protein" type to operate certainly with such built blocks, as genes. That's why by constructing protein molecules of selective effect, the decoded natural nucleotides consequences coding the close analogues of constructing molecules, were taken as the basis.
Efflorescence of biochemistry, cytology, gene's engineering, catalytic chemistry and other sciences based on appliance of substances properties was predetermined by good possibilities of computer modeling, based on powerful computers and perfected software. As a nearest perspective the new integral technology, namely computer constructing of substance with set properties, was seen. The notion "substance" was to be understood both inorganic compounds and objects of organic chemistry inclusive complex and hypercomplex compounds, participating in biochemical reactions of alive organisms. The main task of such integral technology was improvement and optimization of chemical processes, production of new improved substances and reactions by means of maximal application of substance properties. Development of new chemical compounds and reactions in virtual sphere allowed to get along without hundred millions of nature experiments, saving by this the resources and time of the whole Earth, reducing the terms required for creation these or those material comforts. And at that time the technology of computer designing of new substances were developed in many single existing models (levels of common space of virtual modeling), used in genetics, pharmacy, catalytic chemistry and other sciences. For combination of all worked experience within the framework of one technology the computer facilities in hundred millions teraflop and standard software allowing to work with different data basis a number of which were formed on the basis of specialized and local programs, were required.
In fact, in tens of countries and in thousands of science institutions all over the world, the research material in sphere of biotechnologies, gene's and chemical constructing, was collected. Influence of subjective factors, such as confidentiality, ambitions, and desire to receive super profit led to the fact that many already existed scientific data could not be gathered in one universal software. And very often the discoveries were in nothings lost in gaps and did not coincide. For further movement forward it was required to create the joint base of the received data and the universal software which allowed to view the real picture of knowledge, worked out by the scientists of the world. The biggest world producers of soft products took this important task. They understood the fact, that the first person who would be able to offer the universal software would receive good chances to become the monopolist in the nearest future when computer modeling and designing would become an integral part of all industrial, entertaining and teaching technologies. Software joint together different databases and computer models of biological and chemical sciences today, tomorrow will join all the existing sciences about Nature, and a bit later will allow to operate in space of virtual modeling all knowledge, worked out by mankind. It was clearly seen that the development perspectives were very impressive and it has led to the fact that the competitiveness and relations between enterprises of various ownership developing the software, have become maximal strict and pragmatic.
By the end of the second decade of the new century the power of supercomputers reached considerable sizes. In many developed countries of the world tens of supercomputers with power of one trillion Teraflop each, were successfully operated.
Such increasing of computer power was determined by the developed element base and introduction of new technologies. The theoretical memory possibility and transferring of one bit of information with the help of one electron with this being done on traditionally flat and volume micro schemes was realized. Molecular and submolecular technologies making exponential increase of working out the computer power possible were quickly developing. To all this the technologies using modified nanotubes, biological molecules, inclusive DNA and also quantum technologies based on application of subatomic particles as being working elements, could be referred. The technologies which were using the photons instead of electrons for information highway and data processing were standing along side.
On all those directions during the last years a considerable breakthrough was made. As a result of that was appearance of personal computers with processing power of ten in fourteen degree operations per second. Such high-class machines cost much but advantage of their application much exceeded the expenses, that's why new computers were purchased by many science institutions of the world, as being working instrument for leading specialists. These computers were operated round-the-clock. During off-the-job time they automatically tapped to worldwide computer net for solving difficult and actual current tasks. Total power of overall computer net, which theoretically could be involved in the process of solving very complicated tasks, was more than milliard Teraflop by the end of 2019.
Appreciable powers of personal computers and also new generation of systems of volume computer visualization provided creation of every-day space displays forming dynamic volume imagery directly in the air. Application of such equipment increased effectiveness of specialists labor of different professions. Possibility of visual observation the alteration inside the modeling object or process was very important both for engineers and designers of technical professions, and for development-engineers of the newest technologies in genetics, biology, chemistry, etc.
The possibility of conducting permanently acting conferences of different key points of science and technique, on which information and hypotheses were presented as dynamic space imaginaries, was very attractive. For simultaneous participation in discussing such problems by some participants of the same project, working in different cities in the world, big systems of volume computer visualization were developed. The notion "display" for big systems of volume computer visualization did not used as the similarity between such systems and traditional computer display was very distant. Introduction of the first big systems of space computer visualization in the leading scientific centers of the world favored the reducing of quantity of scientific conferences and discussions requiring personal presence of the scientists and, besides, decreased the necessity of personal contacts between the scientists. And really, what can be more understandable and clear, than the discovery, opinion or remark given as a dynamic space image reflecting in details the process or phenomenon under research. At the same time, necessity of stating different opinions in one, accessible for public understanding in form of dynamic space image, required developing common standards for creation space imaginaries and computer models. It was performed timely and operatively. Common standards stated common communication language for scientists in the whole world, unified the software, systemized information and finally reduced time required for new developments, researches, studying scientific hypotheses and suggestions.
From the point of view of creation common space of virtual modeling (CSVM) everything that was happening during the second decade in the sphere of computer modeling, was the first stage of transition gained knowledge in virtual form, development of the simplest equations which reflected the realities of surrounding material world. These first levels of CSVM were the first parts of mosaic, from many of which in the future will be composed common computer model of creation fitted with systems of interactive access to each level and also the systems of renewal and correction the interrelations between the levels.
Studying of processes of remembering and thinking in the human's brain had intensified. The result of these researches was understanding in general physiological and biochemical mechanisms of remembering and thinking. Lacking knowledge was gained with the help of tomographs of new generation able to track changes and distribution of electric activity, temperature and some others parameters in parts of human brain. Biochemists who have decoded molecular structure of many compounds, participating in remembering processes and defined the consequences of biochemical reactions servicing these processes, have made their contribution in studying the intracerebral processes.
Received knowledge created good preconditions for development of new methods of information entry into the human's brain based on application the traditional informational channels (vision, hearing, olfaction, tactile senses, etc.) and also on new original ideas. The main approach was based on proved possibility of the controlled rerecording of information saved in human subconsciousness, in those brain parts which contained information for conscious every-day use.
As it is known, the human brain has in unconsciousness practically all information, received lifelong. But the most its part could not be quickly extracted and used for solving the appeared problem or simply by desire. The reason is in absence of natural mechanism allowing to involve for operational work of the human brain information reserves which are in unconsciousness. Absence of such mechanism is one of the elements of human brain protection from informational overloads, gained in the process of evolution. Significance of such mechanism for modern person having developed intellect and high self-control is quite doubtful. On the one hand, to overcharge human consciousness with permanent concerns about correct functioning of all systems of organism life-support, on the other hand, there are moments in human's life of high necessity when the situation requires some best actions of yours. In such cases the possibility of manual control at systems of organism life-support can be more than desirable.
But the Nature has foreseen the existence of mechanisms of partial selective transition of information from human's unconsciousness to human's consciousness that is confirmed by existing such phenomena as remembering in sleep and intuition. These mechanisms became the background of remembering technology for big volumes of information. The realized approach was based on development and improvement the natural mechanisms of selective transition of information from unconsciousness to consciousness and the purpose was to operate big volumes of information. This process proceeded in two stages. On the first stage informational masses were brought into human's unconsciousness at the time when the human brain was in particular psychic condition such as hypnosis, in state of meditation and under the effectiveness of psychotropic remedies. After this, on the second stage, was "manifestation" of received information or its rerecording in human's consciousness and its fixation there. For this purpose methods of combine influence on separate parts of human brain and nerve-endings of the whole body with the help of alternative electromagnetic fields and pharmacological products were used.
The first experiments were encouraging. The main difficulty laid in the fact that for information transition in unconsciousness high punctuality of selective influencing of physical and chemical methods on definite parts of the human brain was required. With experiments number increasing the required accuracy was reached. The premier experiments concerned the "manifestation" of received by unconsciousness information and as the nearest perspective the possibility of bringing of needed behavior programs, thinking logic and professional skills into the human brain was seen. By this, terms for remembering the necessary volumes of information would be, as it was awaited, some hours and days instead of many years of traditional teaching.
The nanotechnologies of material producing with set properties were perfected. Such materials were intended for application in different branches of world industry. Primarily the technologies of molecular material assembling were oriented to requirements of electronic industry where special purity of applied materials, high accuracy of interarrangement of compounding elements and very accurate doses of put adulterants were demanded.
Such requirements were set for electronic industry earlier and fulfilled by means of known physical and chemical methods. Reducing of quantity of put adulterants up to some atoms, transition to production of space micro schemes, considerable decreasing of sizes of all active elements, exclusive requirements to reliability have led to appearance of new technological decisions. By producing of space micro schemes of each type the individual set of catalytic and absorption metrics which consequently performed forming of volume structure of micro scheme, attaching the required molecules and atoms to micro scheme basis was used. Pure solutions and gases mixtures were a substrate having necessary elements, in case a biological notion can be used in this very case.
Technologies of catalytic and absorption metrics were based on principles and selective extraction from solutions and gases mixtures necessary chemical compounds and selective attachment of these chemical compounds to definite molecules of built object. The reverse principles, namely selective taking atoms and molecules out of built object were successfully applied. In general, cases of nanotechnologies awakened fantasy of scientists and technicians of many specializations that led to appearing of many successful technological decisions. New technologies neared stepwise to natural technologies of assembling the elements of biological systems. That's why in the process of numerous researches aimed at improving the nanotechnologies such biological objects as antibodies, ferments, natural and artificial catalytic substances and their combinations with inorganic compounds were used.
As always, mass attack of regular problem by the professionals of different specializations has showed good results. Qualitative volume micro schemes were received with the help of substance molecular assembling methods. The first successfully operating samples of multilayer micro schemes have made the perspective of producing the micro schemes of unlimited sizes (in practice there were technological restrictions) real. In other words, in the nearest future mass production of "computer" substance, on the basis of which the processors of required power can be produced, was awaited. The grey matter of the human brain can not be mentioned. In such a manner, production of volume micro schemes by methods of molecular assembly opened new era of production the complex structural materials with set properties.
Technological decisions used by producing volume micro schemes, particularly application of catalytic and absorption matrixes for creation of materials with set properties began to be widely applied in different industry branches. The notion "materials with set properties" itself was very capacious in its content. It includes both highly purified chemical elements and compounds, and materials with complex structure, taken on their basis. Functional organic tissues, production of which by methods of molecular assembly was the matter of coming decades, were also determined by this notion. Various combinations of requirements to materials with set properties defined complexity of their space structure, chemical composition, purity of the applied chemical elements and compounds and also the technological nuances. Against a background of number of such tasks, production of "computer" substance was not very difficult task, but was not also very easy. By production of a number of materials with set properties more complicated technologies than by production of "computer" substance, were used. And on the contrary, some materials with set properties could be received quickly and in big quantities.
Scientists and technologists paid attention to improvement and development of new ceramic materials. Perspective was both getting pure ceramic powder for further baking and production of ready-made parts and half-finished material. Interest to ceramics was explained by big variety of ceramic materials (metal ceramics, glass ceramics, polymer ceramics, etc ), wide diapason of their chemical-physics properties and, correspondently, wide sphere of application. One of the leading directions was production of ceramic conductors, possessing above conductivity at room temperature.
It was possible to get such properties by means of ordering the inner structure of ceramic materials, introduction of additional calculated chemical compounds and providing the definite purity of the components, etc. Another trend was production of ceramics with set properties for their application as constructional materials in machinery-building, aviation, space machinery-building and military science. Big variety of ceramic materials having different combinations of physics-mechanical properties was required for these industry branches. Such properties were ultimate heat resistance, wear life, chemical inertness, hardness, plasticity, durability and many others. Another main customer of special ceramics was the medicine. For medicine demands the durable and biologically inert materials for implantation, teeth and bones substitutes and also the constructional materials for artificial organs compatible with mechanical and cybernetic devices were required. Methods of industrial producing the molecular hydrogen were eagerly working our by the scientists of many countries that was explained by the fact that it was risk of depletion of renewable energetic resources. The most perspective was an approach realized in nature as the first stage of photosynthesis that was decomposition of water molecules under sun energy. The most perspective on this way was creation of artificial catalysts able to decompose water molecules using the ambient energy. By the end of the decade the researches had the first successes. Studying the mechanisms of natural photo catalysts reactions, known as photosynthesis reactions, favor producing tens of structural different photosensibilizers – substances repeated the first stage of photosynthesis, namely performing water decomposition on molecular hydrogen and oxygen. Their appliance in laboratory facilities made possible to perform photocatalyst water decomposition in conditions of natural day lightening. Separate samples of photosensibilizers had high resistance and did not require the renewal during two or three weeks. High efficiency coefficient of artificial photocatalytist systems of water decomposition, calculated as relation of burn heating of received hydrogen to the value of used sun energy. In some cases this coefficient reached fifteen percent that was a very high result and allowed the transition to industrial production of molecular hydrogen.
The working out of improved photocatalysts having in general view the results of computer modeling and constructing was intensively realizing. Made on calculated principles, these chemical compounds effected decomposition of water on the basis of non existed in nature photochemical reactions. Invention of effective artificial photocatalysts for producing hydrogen out of water demanded many complicated calculations and this process was very laborious. At the end of the decade a qualitative leap in technologies of computer designing took place that led to making the whole series of effective photocatalysts. Artificial chemical compounds were represented as complex molecules with developed space structure which maximal effective influenced the detachment of hydrogen atom from water molecular. Detachment effect was based on creation around hydrogen atom the local space with calculated arrangement of electronic density and on usage of photons energy. New photocatalysts possessed the high efficiency coefficient of only some percents that was not enough, but they had also considerable advantages such as inertness to the most chemical compounds, duration, and possibility of usage the energy of low energetic photons (red light). Further development of such photocatalysts had good perspectives for production of industrial quantities of hydrogen in cold seasons and also in morning and evening hours when sun light looses its intensiveness and highenergetic component.
In the process of scientific and technical achievements of the last years, the raw-material base of the world energetic altered its structure and displaced in side of molecular hydrogen application. Photocatalyst method of producing the molecular hydrogen out of water had one more important positive aspect except the known ecologic advantage (product of hydrogen combustion in oxygen was water). By application of newly received hydrogen combustible waste of sun energy saved in hydrogen molecules and accumulated and extracted into atmosphere in real time.
The appliance of such energy resources as gas, fuel, coil, peat led to extraction of heat energy accumulated for millions years ago into atmosphere that destructed the existed heat balance of the earth. In such a way, mass usage of hydrogen in energetic excluded additional heating of atmosphere as it was in case of using natural energetic carries and led only to insignificant rearrangement of sun energy in space and time.
Hydrogen application in energetic was in general justified from the point of view of ecology. But there were also some negative aspects, one of which was inevitable pollution of atmosphere with oxides of nitrogen, as a result of usage as oxidizing substance not pure oxygen but non-prepared air. For this problem solving it was required to work out additional systems of supply the hydrogen energetic installations with purified oxygen. It, in its turn, required the working out of new and development of already existed membrane technologies.
Besides it was required to work out and create many new machines, mechanisms and technologies, solve the safety problems by storage, transportation and usage of hydrogen fuel. It can not be said, that they were nor researched subjects and trends. Works on transition the transport, aviation and energetic were performed. Appearance of possibility to produce cheap hydrogen accelerated these researches and works. In short terms the scientists offered some new technologies of hydrogen storage. As the basic one the technology of hydrogen storage in intermolecular spaces of chemical compounds was taken. For this purpose both natural zeolites undergone improvement and new spongy materials of molecular assembly were used. The above mentioned materials were chemically neutral in relation to hydrogen and at the same time were some kinds of vessel obstructing the spontaneous outlet of light gas into atmosphere. Also for hydrogen storage as being chemically compound the alloys on the basis of lanthanum, titanium, nickel and some other metals were used.
The most perspective happened to be storage of hydrogen in nanotubes out of carbon, the space structure of which was modified by the compounds of lanthanum, titanium, nickel and some other metals. Such technology made possible to storage the molecular hydrogen under pressure inside the carbon nanotubes having inside parameters comparable with the ones of hydrogen molecules. By this, it was harmoniously combined both the mechanical holding of hydrogen molecules and their chemical compounding. Such an original method of gas storage allowed to accumulate the hydrogen in special collectors with density being hundreds hold less than gas density in liquid phase. Besides it turned to be not very difficult the method of gas extraction out of collectors of new generation based on ultrasonic or electromagnet influence.
Parallel occurred the development of hydrogen fuel elements, making the energy of hydrogen combustion directly into electrical energy. Samples of every-day devices with power of twenty-five kW and efficiency up to eighty-five percent appeared to be sold.
In such a way, during the only one decade of human history all perspectives for transition the world energetic on hydrogen fuel and also for mass usage in technologies of many production lines had appeared. The principle difficulties of production and storage of inflammable gases were overcome. Rework and improvement of photocatalysts, equipment and servicing infrastructure predetermined soon improvement of ecological state of the whole earth and also the improvement of existence conditions of earth civilization. The intense and at the same time interesting work guaranteed to all participants of scientific-technical progress.
Robot technique has intensively developed. High interest from the side of publicity to the first domestic robots promoted the inflow of financial and staff resources into robot technique and near branches. This led to quick perfection of the produced items, inclusive the domestic robots. Technical evolution of domestic robots was conducted in two directions. The first one of them was creation of effective and perfect housekeeper able to perform the most different household functions. Appearance of these mobile robots was identified by their functional destination and could be of various shapes.
Such mechanical helpers provided with power processor and flexible software were able to do some work about the house which was not difficult, namely vacuum- and furniture clean, gather things, dust, put out the rubbish, open and close the doors and the windows and control safety inside the house. Progenitors of such universal domestic helpers were classical robots, which were electro-mechanical devices intended for fulfilling not complicated functions (some operations).
The progenitors of the second trend in development of domestic robots were computers. Evolution of every-day computer led to appearance of secretary-robot. The particular thing of secretary-robot was the fact that in process of its functioning it did not require executed mechanisms. Secretary-robot was of intellectual weight on providing the human needs. For example, having studied the habits, tastes and preferences of the definite person it could selectively take from television, computer network, electronic libraries and other sources information the definite human was interested in and prepare it in form of a report. Besides, it could send and get correspondence, speak on the phone, talk with visitors, play with children, go shopping and make payments. General shape of this not moving device was like a personal computer shape of which was chosen according to the owner's desire. As a matter of fact, that was an evolutionary product of traditional computers equipped with numerous controllers and connected with many informational networks.
Production of micro robots was distinguished in separate trend. Their mass production was oriented on consumption by different industry branches. The most developed mini robots from micro ones worked at molecular assembling of materials with set properties. Micro robots of bigger sizes were used for controlling and repair of pipelines, reactors in energetic, chemical and pharmacological industry. The first experiments of micro robots using in medicine for investigation and surgical operations with human body were conducted. The separate trend was development and production of mini robots for military and special purposes. More than forty various types of micro robots were designed for the purpose of arming and military technique of the enemy disablement. In their number the robots with such exotic functions as screening of transmitting and receiving antennas, chocking of guns during battles, creation of decoys, delivery of corrosion catalysts to the key units of enemy's weaponry, etc.